Slave Dynasty: Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan, Gais-Ud-Din Balba YouTube Lecture Handouts Part 1

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Slave Dynasty: Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan, Gais-Ud-Din Balban|Delhi Sultanate History

Title: Delhi Sultanate

India ruled by Turkish Sultans of Ilbari Turkish Clan for 320 years under 5 dynasties.

Delhi Sultanate

Slave Dynasty (1206 - 1290)

Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak (1206 - 1210)

  • Aibak founder of slave dynasty was a slave of Muhammad Ghori and rose to general on his merit – was later appointed governor of Indian conquests- after death of Ghori became the ruler of Indian Possessions
  • Married daughter of Taj-ud-din-Yaldiz (Governor of Ghori who was in charge of Ghazni and was a rival)
  • Built Qutub Minar in Delhi and quwat ul Islam mosque
  • Donated generously to Hindus and muslims and called lakh Baksh or giver of Lakhs
  • Died while playing chaugan or Indian polo
  • Aibak died untimely and left void which nobles filled by placing son Aram Shah on Throne of Delhi but was overthrown by son-in-law Iltutmish
  • Had no hereditary but was efficient ruler and conquered whole of north India
  • Called real founder of Delhi Sultanate
  • He was a great ruler
  • Shifted capital from Lahore to Delhi after suppressing revolt of Amirs of Delhi
  • Saved Delhi Sultanate from Mongols and suppressed internal revolts
  • Got the claim to throne approved by Khalifa
  • Land revenue system was reorganized
  • Introduced gold and silver coins (Tanka)
  • Qutub Minar was completed by him
  • Empire was divided into iqtas or provinces which were maintained by Iqtadars (law and order)

Razia Sultan (1236 - 1240)

Daughter of Iltutmish

Brave

Intelligent

Rode horses

Sit in open Darbar

Wise & just ruler

  • Group of 40 noble Turks – Chahalgani – did not approve Razia and made son of Iltutmish Rukn-ud-din-Firoz to throne but was unworthy and finally choose Razia in 1236.
  • Nobles Didi not liked to be ruled by women
  • Nobles accused her of being friendly to Yaqut Khan, Abyssinian ruler (nobles in Altunia rebelled against her) and she won over Altunia by marrying him.
  • Both were killed in war against rebels in 1240
  • After death of Razia there was Chaos, Mongols attacked Lahore and caused death and destruction

Nasir-Ud-Din Mahmud (1246 - 1266)

  • Youngest son of Iltutmish
  • On throne at 17 years
  • Could not manage
  • Succeeded by father-in-law Balban

Ghiyas-Ud-Din Balban (1266 - 1287)

  • Realized weakness due to Turkish schemes
  • Nobles were to perform Sijdah and paibos
  • Followed policy of Blood and Iron
  • He weakened the power of nobles by drawing a distinction between Sultan and Nobles
  • Crushed Turkish nobles “group of forty” or Chahalgani
  • Built chain of forts to protect from Mongol
  • Sijdah means bending in front of King and worshipping him while paibos means kissing the feet of the king
  • Reformed army
  • Made people and nobles loyal to crown
  • Put administration in order
  • Checked Mongol invasion
  • Organized spy system
  • Believed in divine theory of kinship (king is representative of God)
  • Died of illness in 1286
  • Successors were weak and could not preserve the kingdom

Mamluk rulers ended in 1290

Khilji Dynasty (1290 - 1320)

Jalal-Ud-Din Khilji (1290 - 1296)

  • Raid on Devagiri by Ala-ud-din his nephew and son-in-law
  • Defeated Devagiri and returned with lots of wealth and gold
  • Later Ala-ud-din killed his uncle and got to throne

Ala-Ud-Din Khilji (1296 - 1316)

  • Huge army
  • No overpricing
  • Supervised Markets
  • Maintained huge army and to meet military expense – economic reforms were done
  • Controlled prices and supervised market
  • Fixed price of essential goods
  • Strict check on shopkeepers that there is no cheating with weights and traders could not overprice
  • Paid soldiers՚ salary in cash

Art & Architecture

  • Amir Khusrau
  • Amir Hasan
  • Alai Darwaza
  • Siri town
  • Hauz Khas
  • Hauz khas was the royal bath
  • Siri town near Delhi
  • Alai Darwaza near Qutub Minar
  • Alai Minar the unfinished minar was started by Ala-ud-din Khilji
  • Reforms with progressive Attitude
  • Was religious but did not allow religion to interfere in state affairs
  • Alauddin conquered the kingdoms of Gujarat (raided in 1299 and annexed in 1304) , Ranthambore (1301) , Chittor (1303) , Malwa (1305) , Siwana (1308) , and Jalore (1311) .
  • Raided Gujarat under Ulugh Khan & Nasrat Khan – plundered state and brought slave Malik Kafur for 1000 dinars from Port of Cambay and called Hazar Dinari – most trusted general who conquered various regions in south
  • Chittor – Rani Padmani known for beauty; Khilji captured Rana Ratan Singh by foul trick, later asked Padmini to join him if she wanted her husband free – Jaimal and Fatta fred her husband, Khilji attacked and conquered Chittor but Padmini committed Jauhar
  • All states in Rajasthan submitted to him but he did not annex these Rajput states and conquered Malwa in 1305 and became master of Northern India – Included Ujjain, Dhar, Mandu and Chanderi later
  • Deccan India – Did not annex but realized annual tribute
  • Defeated Yadavas in Devagiti
    • Hoysalas in Dwarasamudra
    • Kakatiyas in Warrangal
    • Pandya՚s in Madurai

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