Dynasty in India Sayyid Dynasty & Lodhi Dynasty

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Sayyid Dynasty (1414 - 1451)

Khizr Khan

  • He was appointed as viceroy of Delhi by Timur Lang
  • According to Yahya Sarhindi, the author of Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi, Khizr Khan was a descent from prophet of Islam
  • He assumed the title ‘Raiyat-i-Ala’

Mubarak Shah

  • Adopted the title ‘Shah’
  • Read the khutba by his name
  • Received help from Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir
  • Defeated Khokhar tribe
  • Patronised Yahya Sirhindi

Muhammad Shah

  • In his reign Bahlol Lodhi was given the title of Khan-i-Khanan.

Allaudin Alain Shah

  • During his reign, his Prime Minister Hamid Khan invited Bahlol Lodhi to capture the throne.

Lodhi Dynasty (1451 - 1562)

Map Showing Extent of Lodhi Dynaty

Bahlol Lodhi

  • Bahlol Lodhi established the first Afghan dynasty in India.
  • Called himself as ‘Masad-i-Ali’ .
  • Annexed the Sharqi Empire.
  • Introduced copper coin called ‘Bahloli’ .
  • Died near Jalali.

Sikander Lodhi

  • Mother was a Hindu.
  • Introduced a ‘Gaz-i-Sikandari’ (measurement unit)
  • Shifted his capital to Agra in 1504 A. D.
  • Wrote poems under the name of ‘Gulrukh’ .

Ibrahim Lodhi

  • Fought a battle with Rana Sanga at Khatauli. Rana defeated the Lodhi
  • During his reign Babur was invited by the Governor of Eiiniab, Daulat Khan Lodhi and Governor of Bihar, Daria Khan Lohani.
  • Babur defeated Ibrahim in the first battle of Panipat (1526) .

Agriculture and Finance Terms During Sultanate

  • Crown land: Khahsa
  • Grants made for the religious purposes: Waqf
  • Grant made to non-religious institutions: Milk
  • Grant given as a reward: Inam
  • Land tax from Hindu landlords: Kharaj
  • Land granted to military officers: Iqta
  • Holders of Iqta: Muqta
  • House tax: Ghari
  • Grazing tax: Charai
  • Alms tax on Muslims: Zakat
  • War booty: Khums
  • Village headman: Khuts/Muqaddams.
  • Land revenue fixed on the basis of standing crops: Khet Batai
  • Land revenue fixed without separating the grain from the chaff: Lank Batai
  • After separating the grain from the chaff: Ras Batai
  • Land revenue on the basis of measurement of land: Masahat
  • Land revenue on the basis of estimate: Nasq
  • Taxes on grains: Galla-i-Chungi
  • Tax on vegetables: Khizrawat

Administration Terminology

  • Majlis-i-Khalwat: council of friends and trusted officers who advised the sultan
  • Wazir: head of Diwan-i-Wizarat (dealt with income and expenditure)
  • Mustaufi-Mummalik: Auditor General
  • Mushrif-i-Mummalik: Accountant
  • Ariz-i-Mummalik: Head of the military department, Diwan-i-Arz
  • Sadr-us-Sudur: Head of the public charities and ecclesiastical department, Diwan-i-Risalat.
  • Qazi-ul-Quzzat: Head of the judicial department.
  • AmirMunshi: Head of department for correspondence, Diwan-i-Insha
  • Barid-i-Mummalik: Head of the information and intelligence department.
  • Vakil-i-Dar: Looked after the royal household.
  • Barbek: Looked after the royal court and was involved in assigning nobles a place in the court according to their positions and ranks.
  • Amir-i-Hajib: Presented all the visitors before the sovereign according to court etiquette.
  • Sar-i-Jandar: Chief of royal bodyguards
  • Amir-i-Bahr: Looked after boats
  • Waqia-Navis: News reporter.
  • Barid: Spy
  • Zawabit: State laws
  • Fawazil: Surplus
  • Amir-i-Khuzak: Charged with protecting the royal symbols.

Revenue Administration

  • There were four major taxation:
  • Zakat- was a religions tax imposed on the Muslims and ′ was 2.5 per cent;
  • Khums - was a state share of the booty acquired by the soldier and the soldiers were required to surrender 1/5 th. During A. K. ′ s period it was increased to 4/5 th i.e.. 80 per cent;
  • Kharaj - was the land tax varied from 1/10 ⚹ to 1/2. It was l/10th during Ghyasuddin Tughlak and 1/2 during A. K. ;
  • Jaziya - was a religious tax on the Hindus because they were called_Zimmis i.e.. protected people so the Jaziya was protection tax. It was 5 per cent and FST imposed it on Brahmins also. The other taxes were:
    1. Abawbs - Gharai, Charai - imposed by A. K.
    2. Haqis Shirub - water tax;
    3. Usari - on muslims
      1. 1/10th on rain cultivated area
      2. 1/20th on artificial irrigational area;
    4. Khudmati – tribute for subjugated Indian chiefs;

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