Religious Movements: Background to Religious Movement: Economic Changes

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Background to Religious Movement

Background to Religious Movement

Economic Changes

  • The Rise of Cities and Towns Sarcastic Ayodhya, Kapilavastu Varanasi Visalia Rajagriha (Girivraja) Pataliputra etc. in the middle Gang etic valley
  • Artisans their organisation into guilds (steins) for the first time in Indian history
  • Trade and Commerce: Connection of all important cities through trade routes; growth of merchant guilds which had come into ex- instance in the later Vedic period
  • Coins: Appearance of metal currency in the form of punch – marked coins (of silver mainly and sometimes copper)
  • Agriculture: Extension and intensification of agriculture due to the regular use of iron implements and beginning of paddy Tran՚s plantation

All these economic changes resulted in the growth of the institution of private property which in turn led to sharp economic inequality ties.

Social Changes

  • Varna System: Further strengthening of this four- fold system during this period sharp distinction between the diva (twice-born consisting of the Brahmins Kshatriyas and Vishay՚s) and the non-diva (Sutra՚s)
  • Law: Both civil and criminal law came to be based on the Varna

Political Changes

  • Rise of Shod Asha Maha Janapadas: Six – teen large territorial states came into exist once in place of hundreds of Janapadas Among them the important ones were Magadha (capital – Rajagriha) Koala (Sarcastic) Avanti (Ujjain) Lichchhavi or Hajj (Visalia) Kais (Varanasi) Vats (Katsambis Amga (Champa) etc.
  • From of Government: The predominant from of government was hereditary monad chi but few states like the Lichchhavi Malla Saka, etc. preferred the republican form (ganarajyas)
  • Military Administration: Formation of a standing army for the first time on a solid basis (made possible by the enormous agri cultural surplus; large-scale use of elephants by the kings of east India
  • Revenue Administration Establishment of the fiscal system on a firing basis: regular collection of taxes: collector of land revenue (1/Goth of the produce) known as balisadhaka or saluki
  • Judicial Administration: Foundation of the Indian legal and judicial system: duties of the four yarns mentioned in the Dharma sutras so it was in this period that the ancient Indian polity economy and sock it really took shape.