Western Logic: Figures of Syllogism and the 4 Possible Figures

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The 4 Possible Figures

The 4 Possible Figures

The first figure in which the middle term is the subject of major premise and predicate of minor premise has 4 forms:

  • AAA-1 (known as Barbara)
  • EAE1 (known as Clearent)
  • AII-1 (known as Darii)
  • EIO-1 (known as Ferio)

All Men are Mortal

All Socrates are Men

Therefore, All Socrates are Mortal

The second figure where the middle term is the predicate term in both the premises has 4 forms:

  • AEE-2 (known as Camestres)
  • EAE-2 (known as Cesare)
  • AOO-2 (known as Baroko)
  • EIO-2 (known as Festino)

P-M - No man is hardworking

S-M - All women are hardworking

S-P - Therefore, no women is man

In the second figure the middle term is the predicate term in both the premises; major and minor premise.

The third figure where the middle term is the subject term in both the premises has 4 forms:

  • AII-3 (known as Datisi)
  • IAI-3 (known as Disamis)
  • EIO-3 (known as Ferison)
  • OAO-3 (known as Bokardo)

All artists are Individuals

Some artists are Feminists

Therefore, some feminists are Individuals

The fourth figure where the middle term is the predicate in major premise and subject in minor premise has 3 forms:

  • AEE-4 (known as Camenes)
  • IAI-4 (known as Dimaris)
  • EI0 - 4 (known as Fresison)

Importance of Understanding the Figures

  • The validity of the syllogism is known by the virtue of Figure.
  • The logical form of the syllogism is known via both mood and the figure
  • But the validity of the syllogism is known by the virtue of figure alone.
Importance of Understanding the Figures

MCQ

1. The third figure has how many forms

A. Three

B. Four

C. Two

D. None of these

Answer: B

Explanation: The third figure where the middle term is the subject term in both the premises has 4 forms:

AII-3 (known as Datisi)

IAI-3 (known as Disamis)

EIO-3 (known as Ferison)

OAO-3 (known as Bokardo)

2. A figure is an attribute of a syllogism that specifies the location of the

A. Middle term

B. Major term

C. Categorical Syllogism

D. Both A and C

Answer: A

Explanation: Figure is an attribute of a categorical syllogism that specifies the location of the middle term.

3. Any given syllogism must have

A. First figure

B. Second Figure

C. Third Figure

D. One of the Four figures

Answer: D

Explanation: Any syllogism must have one of these four figures.

Figure 1: M-P, S-M therefore, S-P

Figure 2: P-M, S-M therefore, S-P

Figure 3: M-P, M-S therefore, S-P

Figure 4: P-M, M-S therefore, S-P

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