Personality Disorders: Cluster a: Paranoid PD and Schizoid PD, B and C

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  • According to DSM IV-TR personality disorders are classified into three Clusters. Cluster A, Cluster B and Cluster C.
  • Cluster A: Includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. People with these disorders often seem odd or eccentric, with unusual behavior ranging from distrust and suspiciousness to social detachment.
  • Cluster B: Includes histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Individuals with these disorders share a tendency to be dramatic, emotional, and erratic.
  • Cluster C: Includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. In contrast to the other two clusters, people with these disorders often show anxiety and fearfulness.

Cluster A

Paranoid PD

Suspiciousness and mistrust of others; tendency to see self as blameless; on guard for perceived attacks by others. More among males.

Schizoid PD

Impaired social relationships; inability and lack of desire to form attachments to others. more among males.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

  • Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder are also excessively introverted and have pervasive social and interpersonal deficits (like those that occur in schizoid personality disorder) , but in addition they have cognitive and perceptual distortions, as well as oddities and eccentricities in their communication and behavior.
  • Although contact with reality is usually maintained, highly personalized and superstitious thinking is characteristic of people with schizotypal personality, and under extreme stress they may experience transient psychotic symptoms.
  • Indeed, they often believe that they have magical powers and may engage in magical rituals. Other cognitive – perceptual problems include ideas of reference (the belief that conversations or gestures of others have special meaning or personal significance) , odd speech, and paranoid beliefs.

Cluster B

Histrionic Personality Disorder

  • Self-dramatization; over concern with attractiveness; tendency to irritability and temper outbursts if attention seeking is frustrated.
  • Males is equal to females.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Grandiosity; preoccupation with receiving attention; self-promoting; lack of empathy.

Anti-Social Personality Disorder

Lack of moral or ethical development; inability to follow approved models of behavior; deceitfulness; shameless manipulation of others; history of conduct problems as a child. More among males.

Borderline PD

Impulsiveness; inappropriate anger; drastic mood shifts; chronic feelings of boredom; attempts at self-mutilation or suicide. More among females.

Cluster C

Avoidant PD

Hypersensitivity to rejection or social derogation; shyness; insecurity in social interaction and initiating relationships. Equal among men and females.

Dependent PD

Difficulty in separating in relationships; discomfort at being alone; subordination of needs in order to keep others involved in a relationship; Indecisiveness. Equal among females and males.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Excessive concern with order, rules, and trivial details; perfectionistic; lack of expressiveness and warmth; difficulty in relaxing and having fun. More among males.

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