Fundamental Technical Terms in Psychology for ICMR NET

Dr. Manishika Jain- Join online Paper 1 intensive course. Includes tests and expected questions.

  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Festinger
  • Thurstone: Equal Appearing Scale
  • Likert: Summated Ratings Scale
  • Bogardus: Social Distance Scale
  • Guttman: Scalogram
  • Osgood: Semantic Differential Techniques
  • Adorno: F-Scale
  • Spranger: Types of Man and 6 Types of Values
  • Balance Theory (Attitude) : Heider and Newcomb
  • Congruity Theory (Attitude) : Osgood and Tannenbaum
  • Marijuana is called as Cannabis Sativa
  • Delta Waves: Deep Sleep
  • In Stage I of Sleep There are No Alpha Waves
  • Shift of vision from cones to rods is Called as Purkinje Phenomena
  • Visual Apparatus arise when body of the pilot is in rotation with aircraft and is called as Coriolis Phenomena
  • Cell Assembly Phase Sequence Theory (Perception) : Hebb
  • Adaption Level Theory (Perception) : Helson
  • Motor Adjustment Level Theory: Freeman
  • Sensory Tonic Field Level Theory: Werner and Wapner
  • Attribution: Process of Making Inferences about the Traits
  • Validity Measures what it is Made for and is of 4 Types as Content, Predictive, Concurrent and Construct
  • Reliability Tests Consistency
  • DSM is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by American Psychiatric Association
  • Types of Behavior Modification:
    • Flooding: at Random and at Once
    • Systematic Desensitization: Slow and Gradual
    • Exposure and Response: Need to Protect
  • Relaxation: Do it Easy and do not worry
  • Anxiety: Gaba
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Serotonin
  • Phobia: Given Beta Blockers as Medication
  • Kleptomania: Steal Meaningless Things
  • Fetishism: Worship God
  • Dissociative Hysteria is More Serious and Personality Disintegration Occurs
  • Broca՚s Area in Brain: Motor Speech and Expression and Fluency
  • Wernike՚s Area: Sensory Speech and Comprehension and Temporal Lobe
  • Physical to Nervous Energy is Called as Transduction
  • Mutism: Know what to Say but cannot Say
  • Ambivalence: Inability to Decide for or Against
  • Von Domarus Law: Lord Ram is Hindu, I Am Hindu so I Am Lord Ram
  • Psycho-Cybernetic Imagery: Use imagination to create vivid images
  • Krutchfield Described Leadership as Authoritarian and Democratic
  • Anosmia: Loss of Smell
  • Anopia: Loss of Sight
  • Analgesia: Loss of Pain
  • Astasia: Loss of Walking
  • Anacusia: Loss of Hearing
  • Type A Personality: Restless and Achieving, Sustained aggression, Ambition, Competitiveness, Urgency, Impatience
  • Type B Personality: Less Motivated
  • Somnambulism: Walk in Sleep
  • Neurasthenia: Excessive Fatigue
  • Emotional Wheel by Plutchik
  • Level of Aspiration by Dembo, 1931
  • Alienation: Detachment from Self and Society
  • Apathy: Void of Emotions
  • Transformational Generative Grammar Concept by Chomsky
  • Important Concepts Emphasized by Psychologists:
    • Jung: Unconsciousness (Neo-Freudian)
    • Alder: Individual or Perfection (Neo-Freudian)
    • Horney: Environmental (Neo-Freudian)
    • Fromm: Success and Failure of Society (Neo-Freudian)
    • Erikson: Social Interaction (Neo-Freudian)
    • Reinforcement Learning: Dollard and Miller
    • Social Learning: Bandura and Walters
    • Client Centered Therapy: Rogers
    • Rational Emotive Psychotherapy: Albert Ellis
    • Primal Therapy: A. V. Janov: Recollection of Painful Experiences
    • Logotherapy: V. E. Frankl: Spiritual Aspect: Paradoxical Intention
    • Psychodrama: Moreno
    • Transactional Analysis: Berne
    • Crisis Therapy: Caplan
    • Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Klerman
    • Relaxation Therapy: Jacobson
    • Assertive Training: Wolpe
  • Term Behavior Therapy by Eysenck
  • Halo Effect: Answer is Chosen to Fit Previously Chosen Answers and Response Become what is Expected by Observer
  • Hawthorne Effect: Researchers Alter the Situations by Their Presence
  • IQ was Proposed by Stern and Ratio IQ by Terman
  • Term Projective Test Given by L. K. Frank
  • TAT: Thematic Appreciation Test by Morgan and Murray
  • Rorschach Test by Swiss Hermann Rorschach
  • Hypnosis: Suggestions Given to the Subjects Who Begin to Work Accordingly
  • First Formal Psychological Laboratory in USA at John Hopkins University in 1883
  • Classical Conditioning (S Type) : Pavlov
  • Positive Reinforcement: Thorndike
  • Operant Conditioning (R Type) : Skinner
  • Insight Theory: Kohler
  • Pavlov Was Awarded Nobel Prize in 1904 for His Research on Digestive Glands
  • Human Brain has 150 Billion Neurons
  • Hysteria is Associated with Tics
  • Schizophrenia is Associated with Split Personality
  • Tolman: Cognitive Learning
  • Programmed Learning: Pressey
  • Probability Learning: Brunswik
  • Neurons: Afferent or Sensory are Body to Spinal Cord
  • Efferent or Motor are Spinal Cord to Body
  • Swift Potential Difference = Spike Potential
  • Depolarization = All or None Law
  • Left and Right Hemisphere are Connected by Corpus Callosum
  • Medulla Oblongata: Body Balancing, Respiratory, Circulation and Reflex
  • Anterior Hypothalamus: Parasympathetic: Temperature and Motivation and is Relaxed
  • Posterior Hypothalamus: Sympathetic: Control Carbohydrate, Fat and Water and is Aroused
  • Monocular Cues: Each Eye Can See Independent of Each Other
  • Binocular Cues: Both Eyes Focus to See a Common Object
  • Empathy Theory of Illusion: Lipps
  • Eye Movement Theory of Illusion: Cohen and Festinger
  • Prejudice: Preconceived attitude towards some object or individual and is part of affective behavior
  • Stereotype: Term by Lipman: cause false classification attached to like and dislikes and is cognitive behavior
  • Catharsis: Relieving of emotions by any means including yelling or crying
  • Endogamy: Member of a Caste Marry among Themselves
  • Queuing: Delaying information processing during peak periods
  • Discrimination is a Behavioral Aspect
  • Zullner Illusion: 4 Lines are Parallel but do not look so
  • Poggendorff Illusion: The vertical lines cutting the 2 parallel horizontal lines are two in number but looks like one
  • Ebbinghaus: Forgetting Curve: Discovered speed of learning and speed of forgetting
  • Descartes: 1st Psychologist of Modern Psychology of 17th Century
  • Aristotle: Primary Law of Associations
  • British Empiricists and Association: Hume, Hartley and Mill
  • John Locke: Radial Environment: Tabula Rasa
  • Wundt: 1st Psychology Laboratory in the World 1879 at Lipzing University in Germany on sensation and introspection
  • Binet and Simon in France: Intelligence Test
  • Galton: Mental Measurements and Individual Differences
  • Oswald Kulpe: 1896: Established Psychology Laboratory at Wurzburg to study complex phenomena of thinking, memory and judgment
  • Overt Behavior: As Observed by Others
  • Covert Behavior: As Within Individual
  • Hormic or Purposive: William Mac Dougall: Inspiration and Instinct
  • 1st Psychology Laboratory in India at Calcutta University in 1916 by Dr. N. N. Sengupta
  • 1924: Spearman՚s Student M. V. Gopalswami Established Psychology Laboratory in Mysore University
  • 1925: Indian Science Congress Considered it in Yearly Conference
  • 1926: Indian Journal of Psychology
  • 1942: Journal of Education and Psychology
  • 1922: Indian Psychiatric Association and 1947 Started the Journal ‘Samiksha’
  • For 1st Time in India C. H. Rice Developed Indian Adaptation of Binet Performance
  • Structuralism: By Wundt and His Student Titchner at Cornell University: Introspection and Self-Observation
  • Functionalism: William James, Dewey (Reflex Arc Concept) , Dynamic Psychology
  • Behaviorism: by J. B. Watson
  • Gestalt: 1912 Germany by Kohler, Koffa and Wertheimer: Wholeness Concept
  • Cones in Eyes: Daytime Light
  • Rods in Eyes: Night Time Vision
  • Left Hemisphere of Brain: Analytical, Logical, Mathematical, Cause and Effect and Language Areas
  • Right Hemisphere of Brain: Images, Sensory Input, Synthesis of Information, Artist, Composer, Recognition and Spatial Ability
  • Visual Area: Occipital Lobe
  • Hearing and Taste: Temporal Lobe
  • Touch, Pain and Pressure: Parietal Lobe
  • Placebo: Pharmacologically Inactive but Told to have Desired Effect
  • Camouflage Works because it Breaks up the Contours
  • Operant Conditioning: Shaping
  • Classical Conditioning: Auto-Shaping
  • Reconstruction: Confabulation
  • Sympathetic Nervous System: Noradrenaline: Accelerate All
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System: Acetylcholine: Work opposite to Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Information Processing Theory: Atkinson-Shiffrin
  • Heavy Drinking Leads to Brain Damage: Korsaff Syndrome
  • Linguistics: Study of Language
  • Psycholinguistics: Use Language to Understand and Generate
  • Opponent Process Theory: Hedonistic View
  • Machiavellianism by Machiavelli: Advice to Rulers to Maintain Power
  • Lie Detector: Polygraph
  • Freud: Interpretation of Dreams
  • Non Parametric Tests: Chi Square Test
  • Positive Skewness: Mean is Maximum and Mode is Minimum
  • Dispersion: Amount of Variation
  • Skewness: Direction of Variation
    • 1st Moment by Origin: Mean
    • 2nd Moment by Origin: Variance
    • 3rd Moment by Origin: Skewness
    • 4th Moment by Origin: Kurtosis (Flatness-Platykurtic and Peakedness-Leptokurtic)
  • Rank Correlation in Psychology by Spearman: 1904
  • F-Test by Fisher: Find out whether two independent estimates of population variance differ significantly
  • ANOVA: Analysis of Variance: Fischer: To test whether means of more than two quantitative populations are equal and based on the assumptions of Normality, Homogeneity, and Independence of Error.
  • Inductive: Factual and Deductive: Based on Assumptions

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