# Meaning of Important Terms in Psychology Part 1 for ICMR NET

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**Descriptive statistics**: Mathematical tools used to describe and summarize numeric data.

**Inferential statistics**: Mathematical tools used for decision making, for generalizing from small samples, and for drawing conclusions.

**Graphical statics**: Techniques for presenting numbers pictorially, often by plotting them on a graph.

**Frequency distribution**: A table that divides an entire range of scores into a series of classes and then records the number of scores that fall into each class.

**Histogram**: A graph of a frequency distribution in which the number of scores falling in each class is represented by vertical bars.

**Frequency polygon**: A graph of a frequency distribution in which the number of scores falling in each class is represented by points on a line.

**Central tendency**: The tendency for a majority of scores to fall in the midrange of possible values.

**Mean**: A measure of central tendency calculated by adding a group of scores and then dividing by the total number of scores.

**Median**: A measure of central tendency found by arranging scores from the highest to the lowest and selecting the score that falls in the middle. That is, half the vales in a group of scores fall above the median and half fall below.

**Mode**: A measure of central tendency found by identifying the most frequently occurring score in a group of scores.

**Variability**: The tendency for a group of scores to differ in value. Measures of variability indicate the degree to which a group of scores differ from one another.

**Range**: The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a group of scores.

**Standard deviation**: An index of how much a typical score differs from the mean of a group of scores.

**Z-score**: A number that tells how many standard deviations above or below the mean a score is.

**Normal curve**: A bell-shaped distribution, with a large number of scores in the middle, tapering to very few extremely high and low scores.

**Correlation**: The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables.

**Scatter diagram**: A graph that plots the intersection of paired measures; that is, the points at which paired X and Y measures cross.

**Positive relationship**: A mathematical relationship in which increase in one measure are matched by increase in the other (or decreases correspond with decreases) .

**Zero correlation**: The absence of a (linear) mathematical relationship between two measures.

**Negative relationship**: A mathematical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by decreases in the other.

**Coefficient of correlation**: A statistical index ranging from -1.00 to + 1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation.

**Perfect positive relationship**: A mathematical relationship in which the correlation between two measures is + 1.00.

**Perfect negative relationship**: A mathematical relationship in which the correlation between two measures is -1.00.

**Percent of variance**: A portion of the total amount of variation in a group of scores.

**Population**: An entire group of animals, people, or object belonging to a particular category (for example, all college students or all married women) .

**Sample**: A smaller subpart of a population.

**Representative sample**: a small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population.

**Random selection**: Choosing a sample so that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

**Statistical significance**: The degree to which an event (such as the results of an experiment) is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone.