ICSE Class 10 Geography India: Geography: Types of Agriculture YouTube Lecture Handouts

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ICSE Class 10 Geography: Agriculture

Types of Agriculture – Shifting Cultivation

  • Slash and Burn
  • Fields are rotated
  • Draught animals are not used
  • Manual labor is employed
  • Community owns the land
  • Grows for only own families
  • Variety of crops
  • Ecological problems

Subsistence Agriculture

  • Wooden plough is used
  • Only 2 crops
  • High population density
  • Crop rotation
  • Small and fragmented farms
  • Labor intensive industry
  • Domestication of plants
  • Low productivity
  • Variety of cereals

Intensive Agriculture

  • Harvest more than one crop
  • Small landholding
  • Manual labor
  • Multiple crops
  • crop rotation
  • Handheld tillers
  • Draught animals
  • Support family

Extensive Agriculture

  • Very large farm
  • Mechanized
  • Sparsely populated
  • Low yield per hectare
  • Mainly wheat
  • Commercial and exported

Plantation Agriculture

  • Tropical regions
  • Capital intensive
  • Scientific lines
  • Estates more than 40 acres
  • Established by British companies
  • Specialized labor
  • Monoculture

Mixed Farming

  • Grow crop and livestock
  • Reduced risk
  • Animal products
  • High capital expenditure
  • For sale

Commercial Farming

  • Horticulture – labor and capital intensive; vegetable, flower, and fruits
  • Commercial intensive – Punjab, Haryana, Western UP
  • Plantation agriculture
  • Cash crop like jute, sugarcane, oilseeds

Features of Agriculture

  • Gamble of rain
  • Large latitudinal variation of temperature and rain
  • Subsistence agriculture
  • Outdated techniques
  • Obsolete techniques
  • Small and fragmented farms
  • Risk averse mindset

Problems of Agriculture

  • Monsoon vagaries
  • Irrigation
  • Small and uneconomic landholdings
  • Seeds
  • Manures, fertilizers
  • Lack of mechanization
  • Soil erosion
  • Agricultural marketing
  • Lack of storage facilities
  • Credit for framers

Solutions for Agriculture

  • Multipurpose dam projects
  • Consolidation of land holdings
  • National seeds corporation
  • Heavy subsidy
  • Shelter belts, strip cropping plugging of gullies
  • State warehousing corporation
  • Green revolution – maximum returns and demand for farm machinery

Classification of Agricultural Crops

  • Based on Season of growth
  • Based on use of crops
    • Based on Season of growth – Kharif, rabi zayad
    • Based on use of crops – food, cash, beverage, fibre, oilseeds, species
      Zaid, Kharif, Rabi

Zaid

  • Watermelon,
  • muskmelon,
  • cucumber,
  • vegetables,
  • fodder Rice – West Bengal &
  • Tamil Nadu as Boro

Kharif

  • Paddy (3 crops in Assam, Bihar & Orissa - Aus, Aman and Boro) , maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean
  • Sown- Monsoon – June Harvest – Sept/Oct
  • Assam, West Bengal, coastal Orissa, AP, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Konkan in Maharashtra UP and Bihar

Rabi

  • Punjab, Haryana, HP, J & K
  • Uttaranchal and UP
  • Wheat, barley, peas, jowar, gram and mustard, rapeseed, linseed
  • Sown- Winter – Oct/Nov
  • Harvest – Summer – Apr/June

Manishika