ICSE Class 10 Geography India: Geography: Types of Agriculture YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: ICSE Class 10 Geography: Agriculture

ICSE Class 10 Geography: Agriculture

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Types of Agriculture – Shifting Cultivation

  • Slash and Burn

  • Fields are rotated

  • Draught animals are not used

  • Manual labor is employed

  • Community owns the land

  • Grows for only own families

  • Variety of crops

  • Ecological problems

Subsistence Agriculture

  • Wooden plough is used

  • Only 2 crops

  • High population density

  • Crop rotation

  • Small and fragmented farms

  • Labor intensive industry

  • Domestication of plants

  • Low productivity

  • Variety of cereals

Intensive Agriculture

  • Harvest more than one crop

  • Small landholding

  • Manual labor

  • Multiple crops

  • crop rotation

  • Handheld tillers

  • Draught animals

  • Support family

Extensive Agriculture

  • Very large farm

  • Mechanized

  • Sparsely populated

  • Low yield per hectare

  • Mainly wheat

  • Commercial and exported

Plantation Agriculture

  • Tropical regions

  • Capital intensive

  • Scientific lines

  • Estates more than 40 acres

  • Established by British companies

  • Specialized labor

  • Monoculture

Mixed Farming

  • Grow crop and livestock

  • Reduced risk

  • Animal products

  • High capital expenditure

  • For sale

Commercial Farming

  • Horticulture – labor and capital intensive; vegetable, flower and fruits

  • Commercial intensive – Punjab, Haryana, Western UP

  • Plantation agriculture

  • Cash crop like jute, sugarcane, oilseeds

Features of Agriculture

  • Gamble of rain

  • Large latitudinal variation of temperature and rain

  • Subsistence agriculture

  • Outdated techniques

  • Obsolete techniques

  • Small and fragmented farms

  • Risk averse mindset

Problems of Agriculture

  • Monsoon vagaries

  • Irrigation

  • Small and uneconomic landholdings

  • Seeds

  • Manures, fertilizers

  • Lack of mechanization

  • Soil erosion

  • Agricultural marketing

  • Lack of storage facilities

  • Credit for framers

Solutions for Agriculture

  • Multipurpose dam projects

  • Consolidation of land holdings

  • National seeds corporation

  • Heavy subsidy

  • Shelter belts, strip cropping plugging of gullies

  • State warehousing corporation

  • Green revolution – maximum returns and demand for farm machinery

Classification of Agricultural Crops

  • Based on Season of growth

  • Based on use of crops

    • Based on Season of growth – Kharif, rabi zayad

    • Based on use of crops – food, cash, beverage, fibre, oilseeds, species

      Zaid, Kharif, Rabi

      Zaid, Kharif, Rabi

      • Zaid:

        • Watermelon,

        • muskmelon,

        • cucumber,

        • vegetables,

        • fodder Rice – West Bengal &

        • Tamil Nadu as Boro

      • Kharif:

        • Paddy (3 crops in Assam, Bihar & Orissa - Aus, Aman and Boro), maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean

        • Sown- Monsoon – June Harvest – Sept/Oct

        • Assam, West Bengal, coastal Orissa, AP, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Konkan in Maharashtra UP and Bihar

      • Rabi:

        • Punjab, Haryana, HP, J & K

        • Uttaranchal and UP

        • Wheat, barley, peas, jowar, gram and mustard, rapeseed, linseed

        • Sown- Winter – Oct /Nov

        • Harvest – Summer – Apr/June

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