Thomes Hobbes Western Political Thoughts for ICSE/ISC Board Exam (2021)

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Thomes Hobbes: Western Political Thought Its Nature, Analysis, Social Contract (Political Science)

First Social contract philosopher

Title: Thomes Hobbes

Important Concepts

  • State of Nature
  • Analysis of human nature
  • Social contract
  • Sovereignty
  • Natural Law
  • Natural Right

State of Nature

  • A hypothetical condition .
  • People living in before coming in contract.
  • A condition of perpetual peace and fear.
  • Might is right.
  • War of all against all.
  • There were no state controls and regulations.
  • Every individual is the competitor of the other.
  • Living in conflictual condition.
  • Every one is potential enemy of the other.

Analysis of Human Nature

  • Man is poor , nasty, brutish, savage and solitary.
  • Self – centered.
  • Has his own concept of pleasure-pain, good- bad.
  • An uncivilized creature.
  • Presents a dark picture of human nature.

Social Contract

  • The life of state of nature forced to enter into contract.
  • For perseverance or protection of rights they contract.
  • Arrived at through covenants.
  • Contract is one way.
  • People surrender their rights to sovereign.
  • People are the only party to contract.


Title: Sovereignty
  • Sovereign can not be unjust.
  • Final authority to approve all contract.
  • Should not be disobeyed.
  • Accountable to none for his actions.
  • This makes Hobbes an absolutist.

Natural Law

Title: Natural Law

Natural Rights

Title: Natural Rights

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