Geology Paper I Revised Syllabus as per 2016 Notification

Section A: Geomorphology and Remote Sensing.

  • Introduction: Development, Scope, Geomorphic concepts, Types and Tools;

  • Landforms: Role of Lithology, peneplaination, endogenous and exogenous forces responsible, climatic and Tectonic factors and rejuvenation of landforms;

  • Denudationl processes: Weathering, erosion, transportation, weathering products and soils – profiles, types, duricrusts;

  • Hillslopes: Their characteristics and development, fluvial processes on Hillslopes;

  • River and drainage basin: Drainage pattern, network characteristics, Valleys and their development, processes of river erosion, transportation and deposition;

  • Landforms produced by geomorphic agents: Fluvial, Coastal, Glacial and Aeolian landforms;

  • Geomorphic indicators of nontectonic movements: Stream channel morphology changes, drainage modifications, fault reactivation, Uplift – subsidence pattern in coastal areas;

  • Applied Geomorphology: Application in various fields of earth sciences viz. Mineral prospecting, Geohydrology, Civil Engineering and Environmental studies;

  • Geomorphology of India: Geomorphic features and zones

  • Electromagnetic radiation – characteristics, remote sensing regions and bands;

  • General orbital and sensor characteristics of remote sensing satellites;

  • Spectra of common natural objects – soil, rock, water and vegetation.

  • Aerial photos – types, scale, resolution, properties of aerial photos, stereoscopic parallax, relief displacement;

  • Principles of photogrammetry;

  • Digital image processing – characteristics of remote sensing data, preprocessing, enhancements, classification;

  • Elements of photo and imagery pattern and interpretation, application in Geology;

  • Remote sensing applications in interpreting structure and tectonics, Lithological mapping, mineral resources, natural hazards and disaster mitigation, groundwater potentials and environmental monitoring.

  • Landsat, Skylab, Seasat and other foreign systems of satellites and their interpretation for geological and other studies;

  • Space research in India – Bhaskar and IRS systems and their applications, Thermal IR remote sensing and its applications, Microwave remote sensing and its applications.

  • Principles and components of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing data integration with GIS, applications of GIS in various geological studies.

Section B: Structural Geology

  • Principle of geological mapping and map reading, projection diagrams.

  • Stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous materials.

  • Measurement of strain in deformed rocks.

  • Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions.

  • Structural analysis of folds, cleavages, lineations, joints and faults.

  • Superposed deformation.

  • Mechanism of folding, faulting and progressive deformation.

  • Shear Zones: Brittle and ductile shear zones, geometry and products of shear zones;

  • Mylonites and cataclasites, their origin and significance.

  • Time relationship between crystallization and deformation.

  • Unconformities and basement-cover relations.

  • Structural behaviour of igneous plutons, diapirs and salt domes.

  • Introduction to petro fabric analysis.

Section C: Geodynamics

  • Earth and its internal structure.

  • Continental drift – geological and geophysical evidence and objections.

  • An overview of plate tectonics including elementary concepts of plates, lithosphere, asthenosphere, types of plate boundaries and associated important geological features like oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, accretionary wedges, topography of mid-ocean ridges, magnetic anomaly stripes and transform faults.

  • Gravity anomalies at mid-ocean ridges, deep sea trenches, continental shield areas and mountain chains.

  • Palaeomagnetism and its application for determining palaeoposition of continents.

  • Isostasy, Orogeny and Epeirogeny.

  • Seismic belts of the earth.

  • Seismicity at plate boundaries.

  • Principles of Geodesy, Global Positioning System (GPS) and its application in crustal motion monitoring including neotectonics.

  • Palaeoposition of India and Geodynamics of the India plate.

Section D: Stratigraphy

  • Principles of Stratigraphy: History and Development of Stratigraphy; Stratigraphic procedures (Surface and Subsurface);

  • Concept of Lithofacies and Biofacies;

  • Stratigraphic Correlation (Litho, Bio- and Chronostrarigraphic Correlation);

  • Study of standard stratigraphic code (Lithostratigraphic, Biostratigraphy and Chronostrarigraphic);

  • Concepts of Magneto stratigraphy, Chemo stratigraphy, Event stratigraphy, and Sequence stratigraphy;

  • Nomenclature and the modern stratigraphic code.

  • Radioisotopes and measuring geological time.

  • Geological time-scale. Stratigraphic procedures of correlation of unfossiliferous rocks.

  • Precambrian stratigraphy of India : Achaean stratigraphy -tectonic frame-work, geological history and evolution of Dharwar, and their equivalents;

  • Easter Ghats mobile belt; Proterozoic stratigraphy -tectonic framework, geological history and evolution of Cuddapahs and their equivalents.

  • Paleozoic stratigraphy: Paleozoic formations of India with special reference to type localities, history of sedimentation, fossil content.

  • Mesozoic stratigraphy: Mesozoic formations of India with special reference to type localities, history of sedimentation, fossil content.

  • Cenozoic stratigraphy: Cenozoic formations of India, Rise of the Himalayas and evolution of Siwalik basin.

  • Stratigraphic boundaries: Stratigraphic boundary problems in Indian geology.

  • Gondwana Supergroup and Gondwanaland.

  • Deccan Volcanics.

  • Quaternary stratigraphy.

  • Rocks record, palaeoclimates and paleogeography

Section E: Paleontology

  • Evolution of the fossil record and the geological time scale. Basic and functional morphology of major fossil groups. Species concept;

  • Major evolutionary theories ;

  • Techniques in Paleontology mega fossils- microfossils – nannofossils , ichnofossils – collection, identification and illustration – binomial Nomenclature;

  • Invertebrate Paleontology – A brief study of morphology, classification, evolutionary trends and distribution of Bivalves, cephalopodan and Gastropods, Echinoids, Corals and Brachiopods.

  • Vertebrate Paleontology – Brief study of vertebrate life through ages. Evolution of reptiles and mammals;

  • Siwalik vertebrate fauna;

  • Biodiversity and mass extinction events;

  • Evidence of life in Precambrian times;

  • Paleontological perspective : Use of paleontological data in

    1. Stratigraphy

    2. Paleoecology and evolution;

  • Introduction to Micropaleontology;

  • Types of Microfossils;

  • Plant fossils: Gondwana flora and their significance. Different microfossil groups and their distribution in India;

  • Application of palynology.

  • Basic idea about statistical application in paleontology.

  • Fundamentals of isotopic studies of fossils.