Geology Paper II Revised Syllabus as Per 2016 Notification (Old Syllabus Us)

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This is old syllabus. It was updated in 2019. The new combined syllabus for both prelims and mains is here

Section a: Mineralogy and Geochemistry & Isotope Geology

  • External symmetry of crystals: Symmetry Elements, methods of projection, derivation of 32 classes, Hermaun Muguin notation.
  • Internal symmetry of crystals: Derivation of 230 space groups, diffraction of crystals by X-rays, Braggs՚ law.
  • Principles of optical mineralogy : Optical mineralogy, polarized light, behaviour of isotropic and anisotropic minerals in polarized light, refractive index, double refraction, birefringence, sign of elongation, interference figures, 2V, dispersion in minerals.
  • Optic sign, pleotropic scheme and determination of fast and slow vibrations and accessory plates.
  • Introduction to mineralogy: Definition and classification of minerals. Structural and chemical principles of crystals/minerals, chemical bonds, ionic radii, coordination number (CN) and polyhedron.
  • Structure, chemistry, physical and optical characters and par agenesis of mineral groups: Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica and spinel groups; Feldspar, quartz, feldspathoid, alumina silicate, epidote and garnet groups.
  • Accessory minerals: Apatite, calcite, corundum, scapolite, sphene and zircon.
  • Earth mineralogy: Average mineralogical composition of crust and mantle, mineral transformations in the mantle with depth.
  • Earth in relation to the solar system and universe, cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites.
  • Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements.
  • Trace elements and REE and their importance in fractional crystallization during magmatic/partial melting.
  • Elementary crystal chemistry and thermodynamics. Introduction to isotope geochemistry.
  • Geochronology and age of the Earth: Law of Radioactivity; Principles of isotopic dating, Decay schemes and Derivation of equation of age.
  • Rb/Sr, U- Th – Pb methods of dating the rocks.
  • Age of the Earth.
  • Geochemistry and principles of evolution of hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere.
  • Geochemical cycle and principles of geochemical prospecting.

Section B: Igneous Petrology

  • Origin of magmas: Mantle, onset of partial melting of mantle, processes of partial melting in mantle, mantle-magmas in relation to degree and depth-level of partial melting.
  • Phase equilibrium in igneous systems: Binary and ternary systems.
  • Bowen՚s reaction principle: Reaction series and its application to pathogenesis.
  • Magmatic evolution and differentiation: Fractional crystallization, gravitational differentiation, gas streaming, liquid immiscibility and assimilation.
  • Structures and textures: Definition, description, rock examples and genetic implications of common structures and textures of igneous rocks.
  • Classification of igneous rocks: Mode, CIPW norm, IUGS and other standard classifications;
  • Magmatism and tectonics: Inter-relationship between tectonic settings and igneous rock suites.
  • Igneous rock suites: Form, structure, texture, modal mineralogy, pathogenesis and distribution of Ultramafic
  • rocks: Dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite suite;
  • kimberlites, lamprophyres, lamproites, komatiites;
  • Basic rocks: Gabbro-norite-anorthosite-troctolite suite, Dolerites; Basalts and related rocks;
  • Intermediate rocks: Diorite-monzonite-syenite suite; Andesites and related rocks;
  • Acidic rocks: Granite-syenite-granodiorite-tonalite suite; Rhyolites and related rocks;
  • Alkaline rocks: Shonkinite, ijolite, urtite, melteigite, malignite, alkali gabbros, alkali basalt, alkali granite, alkali
  • syenite, nepheline syenite and phonolite;
  • Carbonatites; Ophiolite suite.
  • Petrogenetic provinces.
  • Continental areas: Volcanic-Flood basalts-Tholeiites (Deccan Trap, Columbia River basalts) ;
  • Layered gabbroic intrusions: The Bushveld complex, Skaergaard intrusion, Still water complex.
  • Plutonic: Carbonatites and alkaline rock complexes of India;
  • Oceanic Rift valleys: MORB- Tholeiites-Ophiolites

Section C: Metamorphic Petrology & Processes

  • Concepts and Theory: Types of Metamorphism and their controlling factors;
  • Common minerals of metamorphic rocks;
  • Field observations, petrographic classification of common metamorphic rocks;
  • Metamorphic facies and facies series.
  • Effects of Metamorphism: Phase diagrams and graphic
  • representation of mineral assemblages;
  • Prograde and retrograde metamorphism, Matasomatism;
  • Deformation textures and textures related to recrystallization;
  • Metamorphic reactions, elemental exchange and Pressure – Temperature conditions of Isograds;
  • Mineral assemblage՚s equilibrium/reaction textures and geo-thermo barometry.
  • Experimental and thermodynamic appraisal of metamorphic reactions;
  • Role of fluids in metamorphic reactions.
  • Metamorphism types and products: Regional and thermal metamorphism of pelitic rocks.
  • Regional and thermal metamorphism of basic and ultrabasic rocks;
  • Regional and thermal metamorphism of impure, siliceous carbonate rocks;
  • Metamorphism of Granitoides, Charnockites and Migmatites.
  • Metamorphism in space and time: Plate tectonics and metamorphic processes;
  • Paired metamorphic belts, Archaean and Proterozoic terrains;
  • Extraterrestrial Metamorphism (Impact and Shock Metamorphism) ;
  • Polymetamorphism.

Section D: Sedimentology

  • Provenance and digenesis of sediments.
  • Sedimentary textures.
  • Framework, matrix and cement of terrigenous sediments.
  • Definition, measurement and interpretation of grain size.
  • Elements of hydraulics.
  • Primary structures, palaeocurrent analysis.
  • Biogenic and chemical sedimentary structures.
  • Sedimentary environment and facies.
  • Facies modeling for marine, non-marine and mixed sediments.
  • Tectonics and sedimentation.
  • Classification and definition of sedimentary basins.
  • Sedimentary basins of India.
  • Cyclic sediments.
  • Seismic and sequence stratigraphy.
  • Purpose and scope of basin analysis.
  • Stratum contours and isopach maps.

Section E: Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards

  • Fundamental concepts of Environmental Geology - its scope, objectives, and aims.
  • Earth՚s thermal environment and Climates.
  • Global warming.
  • Greenhouse effect.
  • Ozone depletion – Ice sheets and fluctuation in sea levels.
  • Concepts of ecosystem.
  • Earth՚s major ecosystems terrestrial and aquatic.
  • Meteorology as environmental science.
  • Air Pollution, sources of pollution, pollution due to dust and waste disposal.
  • National and International standards.
  • Environmental health hazards.
  • Mining, opencast, underground, disposal of industrial and radio-active waste, dumping stacking, rehandling, management, mineral processing, tailing ponds, acid mine drainage, siltation, case studies.
  • Mining below water table, mine water discharges, regional effects on water regime.
  • Noise levels- national standards, mining machinery, ill effects.
  • Air sampling techniques – respirable dust samplers, high volume air samplers, personal sampling pumps, weather monitoring equipment՚s, automatic recorders.
  • Elements of Environmental Impact Assessment – impacts, primary, secondary, prediction, assessment, base-line data generation, physical, biological, cultural, socioeconomic aspects.
  • Carrying capacity based developmental planning – Assimilative capacity – supportive capacity – Resource based planning – Institutional strategies.
  • Sustainable Developmental Planning - Applications of GIS in Environmental Management.
  • Environmental Legislations in India.
  • Concepts and principles: Natural hazards – preventive/precautionary measures – floods, landslides, earthquakes, river and coastal erosion.
  • Distribution, magnitude and intensity of earthquakes.
  • Neotectonics and seismic hazard assessment.
  • Preparation of seismic hazard maps.
  • Impact of seismic hazards on long and short term environmental conditions.
  • Mechanism of landslides causes of major floods, cyclones and storms.
  • Deforestation and land degradation.
  • Coastal erosion, its causes and control of Geological hazards and crisis management.

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