LSAT 2007: Section 2

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Time-35 minutes 25 Questions are to be solved.


The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. Each problem has certain set of conditions. Mark that answer in your answer sheet which seems the most accurate of all the options.

  1. Economist: Every business aims at increasing productivity as it leads to increased profits which every entreprenuer wants. But while in the race of increasing profits everytime, we tend to harm the employees working in the firm as their number is cut off due to technological advancement. This harms the employees as well as the sense of security of the retained employees. What the economist wants to convey most accurately?

    1. If an action taken to secure the survival of a business fails to enhance the welfare of the business's employees, that action cannot be good for the business as a whole.

    2. Some measures taken by a business to increase productivity fail to be beneficial to the business as a whole.

    3. The employees of the firm should also be its owners and both the owners and employees'interests should coincide, enabling measures that will be beneficial to the business as a whole.

    4. There is no business that does not make efforts to increase its productivity.

    5. Decreasing the number of employees in a business leads to feeling of unrest and insecurity in retained employees.

    Answer: b

  2. All Labrador retrievers bark a lot while all Saint Bernards do not bark as frequently as Labrador. But Rosa's dogs is a cross breeding done between a Labrador retriever and a Saint Bernard. And hence Rosa's dogs are moderate barkers. Which one of the following is an anology similar to the reasoning given in the above argument?

    1. All students who study diligently make good grades. But some students who do not study diligently also make good grades. Jane studies somewhat diligently. Therefore, Jane makes somewhat good grades.

    2. All type A chemicals are extremely toxic to human beings. On the other hand, all type B chemicals are nontoxic to human beings. A mixture of these two is household cleaner and hence it is moderately toxic.

    3. All students at Hanson School live in Green County. The students studying in Edwards School live in Winn County. The members of the Perry family attend both Hanson and Edwards. As a result, some members of the Perry family live in Green County while others live in Winn County.

    4. All transcriptionists know shorthand. All engineers know calculus. Bob has worked both as a transcriptionist and as an engineer. And hence he is aware of both the arts.

    5. Kenisha's dresses are always very well made but Connie's dresses are very badly made. This closet contains few dresses which are very well made, and half of them are very badly made. Therefore, half of the dresses in this closet are Kenisha's and half of them are Connie's.

    Answer: b

  3. A century can be well compared to a person's life. As we are at the verge of completing the century, the similar behave extends when we are on the verge of ending our life. Both the times, people end up looking at the previous events of the life and to how they performed? Which one of the following most logically completes the argument?

    1. reminisce about their own lives

    2. fear that their own lives are about to end

    3. focus on what the next century will bring

    4. become very interested in the history of the century just ending

    5. reflect on how certain unfortunate events of the century could have been avoided

    Answer: d

  4. Consumer: The latest Connorly Report intimates that the packed meals of Ocksenfrey are not nutritional. But it is to be noticed here that Connorly Report is preapred by Danto Foods which is Ocksenfrey's largest corporate rival. The earlier drafts of this report has been sent to the public relations department of Danto foods. This itself proves that Ocksenfrey's prepackaged meals really are nutritious. The reasoning in the consumer's argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

    1. treats evidence that there is an apparent bias as evidence that the Connorly Report's claims are false

    2. draws a conclusion based solely on an unrepresentative sample of Ocksenfrey's products

    3. ignores the fact that Ocksenfrey can as well affect the reputation of Danto negatively

    4. fails to provide evidence that Danto Foods'prepackaged meals are not more nutritious than Ocksenfrey's are

    5. presumes, without providing justification, that Danto Foods ‘public relations department would not approve a draft of a report that was hostile to Danto Foods’ products

    Answer: a

  5. Scientist: The Earth has warmed up and its average annual temperature has increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the last 100 years. This is because a few minor gases have cropped up in the environment which does not allow the outward flow of heat from the planet. Which one of the following, if true, would count as evidence against the scientist's explanation of Earth's warming?

    1. Only some of the minor gases whose presence in the atmosphere allegedly resulted in the phenomenon described by the scientist were produced by industrial pollution.

    2. Most of the warming occurred before 1940, while most of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere occurred after 1940.

    3. Over the last century, Earth received slightly more solar radiation in few years than it used to get earlier.

    4. Volcanic dust and other particles in the atmosphere reflect back much of the Sun's radiation back into the earth before it can reach Earth's surface thereby producing gases.

    5. The accumulation of minor gases in the atmosphere has been greater over the last century than at any other time in Earth's history.

    Answer: b

  6. For getting a post in the executive board its necessary that a person has an undergraduate degree but at the same time person with a felony conviction cannot be appointed to the board. Thus, Murray, an accountant who has both a bachelor's and a master's degree, cannot be accepted for the post of Executive Administrator, since he has a felony conviction. Which of the following is to be assumed to prove the argument's conclusion logically?

    1. Anyone with a master's degree and without a felony conviction is eligible for appointment to the executive board.

    2. Only candidates eligible for appointment to the executive board can be accepted for the position of Executive Administrator.

    3. An undergraduate degree is not necessary for acceptance for the position of Executive Administrator.

    4. If Murray did not have a felony conviction, he would be accepted for the position of Executive Administrator.

    5. The felony charge on which Murray was convicted is relevant to the duties of the position of Executive Administrator.

    Answer: b

  7. Ethicist: The most advanced kind and self satisfactory moral motivation is based on abstract principles which the mind or the societal norms are not able easily accept and digest. Which actions of the following individuals exhibit the most advanced kind of moral motivation, as described by the ethicist?

    1. Bobby contributed money to a local charity during a charity drive at work because his concern was that it wouldn't look good of his is he didn't donate.

    2. Wes contributed money to a local charity during a charity drive at work because he believed that doing so would improve his employer's opinion of him.

    3. Donna's employers worked for an illegal task which was profitable but it caused huge damage to the environment. Donna did not report this practice to the authorities due to fear of retaliation that her employers would have against her.

    4. Jadine's employers worked for an illegal task which was profitable but it caused huge damage to the environment. Jadine reported this practice to the authorities because she believed that duty towards environment is always more important than monetary profit.

    5. Leigh's employers worked for an illegal task which was profitable but it caused huge damage to the environment. Leigh reported this practice to the authorities because she was pressurized by her peers to do so.

    Answer: d

  8. Electric car, if gets its battery problem solved will be advantegeous in the way that it won't let out emissions unlike auto emissions. But unless dam on rivers are constructed more and more, the energy for charging the battery will come from nuclear or coal-fired power plants. Each of these three power sources produces considerable environmental damage. Thus, the electric car ____ Which one of the following most logically completes the argument?

    1. will have worse environmental consequences than its proponents may believe

    2. will probably remain less popular than other types of cars

    3. requires that purely technical problems be solved before it can succeed

    4. will increase the total level of emissions rather than reduce it

    5. will not produce a net reduction in environmental degradation

    Answer: a

  9. The video game sales have increased tremendously since last three years but it has come to report that these cideo games were mostly purchased by the teens in the age group of 13 − 16. Hence this trend, though increasing may reverse as population of this age group will be declining over the next decade. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument?

    1. Most people 17 years old or older have never purchased a video game.

    2. Video game rentals have declined over the past 3 years.

    3. New technology will undoubtedly make entirely new entertainment options available over the next 10 years.

    4. The number of different types of video games available is unlikely to decrease in the near future.

    5. Most of the people who have purchased video games over the past 3 years are over the age of 16.

    Answer: e

  10. Double-blind techniques prove to be useful tool in scientific experiments, especially when the experimenter or the scientists prehold a view or opinion regarding the subject. This tool will help get rid of such misinterpretations. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the argument?

    1. Scientists'objectivity may get affected by interpreting the situation on the basis of expectations and opinions that they already hold.

    2. It is advisable for scientists to use double-blind techniques in as high a proportion of their experiments as they can.

    3. Scientists sometimes neglect the level of risk which is involved when they interpret the situation on the basis of prior expectations and opinions.

    4. Whenever possible, scientists should refrain from interpreting evidence on the basis of previously formed expectations and convictions.

    5. Double-blind experimental techniques are often an effective way of ensuring scientific objectivity.

    Answer: b

  11. It has been long time since we hear that the electronic media has adversely affected the intellectual skills required and developed by the literary media. But not to forget this was the very complaint when the spread of literacy was blamed instead to ruin the intellectual power of a man such as the powerful memory and extemporaneous eloquence. So, what awaits us is probably a mere alteration of the human mind rather than its devolution. The reference to the complaint of several centuries ago that powerful memory and extemporaneous eloquence were being destroyed plays which one of the following roles in the argument?

    1. evidence supporting the claim that the intellectual skills fostered by the literary media are being destroyed by the electronic media

    2. an illustration of the general hypothesis being advanced that intellectual abilities are inseparable from the means by which people communicate

    3. an example of a cultural change that did not necessarily have a detrimental effect on the human mind overall

    4. evidence that the claim that the intellectual skills required and fostered by the literary media are being lost is unwarranted

    5. possible evidence, mentioned and then dismissed, that might be cited by supporters of the hypothesis being criticized

    Answer: c

  12. The instance has been that that I have promised to keep a confidence and then after that, someone asks me a question that I cannot answer truthfully as the promise needs to be broken to answer the question truthfully. But here then, the promise cannot be both broken and kept at the same time. And hence, a person cannot be obliged both to answer all questions truthfully as well as to keep all promises. Which one of the following arguments reasons most similar to the argument above?

    1. It is always said that its out right as a citizen to speak what we want. But at the same time morality in the forms of civility says that we got to be civil to others. Both saying whatever we want to and civility does not go hand in hand. So, it cannot be true both that we have the unencumbered right to say whatever we want and that we have the duty to be civil.

    2. Some politicians can well attain their position, place and popularity among voters only when they make extravagant promises. These promises are not always true and thereby deceive the people. Hence now it has become a pattern that as a politician needs to be popular among people, he has to deceive them.

    3. If we put in a extra effort to make this report seem good, the client might think that this is purposely done so as to diverge the mind from the actual benefits that we offer and project on the way we presented. The other side, if an effort is not made, the client might think we are not serious about her business. So, whatever we do, we risk her criticism.

    4. Business is supposed to pay of the debts of the creditors if they have enough funds. If they won't pay it, the court will force the business to clear off the debts. But the courts did not force this business to pay its debts. Then their could be either situation. Might be the creditors did not have legitimate claims or the business did not have sufficient resources.

    5. If we extend our business hours, we will either have to hire new employees or have existing employees work overtime. But both new employees and additional overtime would dramatically increase our labor costs. We cannot afford to increase labor costs, so we will have to keep our business hours as they stand.

    Answer: a

  13. Standard aluminum soft-drink cans contain the same amount of aluminum in every can. Fifty percent of the aluminum in the aluminium cans of group (M) is of aluminium obtained by recyling the used cans of another group (L). Since all the cans in L were recycled into cans in M and since the amount of material other than aluminum in an aluminum can is negligible, it follows that M contains twice as many cans as L. The conclusion of the argument follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

    1. The aluminum in the cans of M cannot be recycled further.

    2. Recycled aluminum is of poorer quality than unrecycled aluminum.

    3. All of the aluminum in an aluminum can is recovered when the can is recycled.

    4. None of the soft-drink cans in group L had been made from recycled aluminum.

    5. Aluminum soft-drink cans are more easily recycled than are soft-drink cans made from other materials.

    Answer: c

  14. A cup of raw milk when heated in a microwave oven to 50 degrees Celsius loses half of its concentration of lysozyme enzyme. But if the same raw milk is heated at the same temperature conventionally, it will contain nearly all of its initial concentration of the enzyme. This proves that the milk does not lose the concentration of enzyme by heating but due to microwaves which generate heat. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

    1. Heating raw milk in a microwave oven to a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius destroys nearly all of the lysozyme initially present in that milk.

    2. Enzymes in raw milk that are destroyed through excessive heating can be replaced by adding enzymes that have been extracted from other sources.

    3. A liquid exposed to a conventional heat source of exactly 50 degrees Celsius will reach that temperature more slowly than it would if it were exposed to a conventional heat source hotter than 50 degrees Celsius.

    4. Milk that has been heated in a microwave oven does not taste noticeably different from milk that has been briefly heated by exposure to a conventional heat source.

    5. Heating any liquid by microwave creates small zones within it that are much hotter than the overall temperature that the liquid will ultimately reach.

    Answer: e

  15. To curb the serious emergence of cases of influenza, a new government policy has been brought up in which annual vaccination will be given to high-risk individuals: Everyone 65 and older as well as anyone with a chronic disease that might cause them to experience complications from the influenza virus. The vaccination every year will only give protection against the strain of the influenza virus deemed most likely to be prevalent that year, so every year it will be necessary for all high-risk individuals to receive a vaccine for a different strain of the virus. Which one of the following options provides an assumption that would allow the conclusion above to be properly drawn?

    1. The number of individuals in the high-risk group for influenza will not significantly change from year to year.

    2. The likelihood that a serious influenza epidemic will occur varies from year to year.

    3. No vaccine for the influenza virus protects against more than one strain of that virus.

    4. Each year the strain of influenza virus deemed most likely to be prevalent will be one that had not previously been deemed most likely to be prevalent.

    5. Each year's vaccine will have fewer side effects than the vaccine of the previous year since the technology for making vaccines will constantly improve.

    Answer: d

  16. Taylor: Researchers at a local university claim regarding communication pattern that 61 percent of the information that is communicated while in a conversation is transmitted through nonverbal signals. However, like all other vague claims, even this one is to be suspected as such exact claims could never be established by science. Sandra: While precision and exactness is utmost not possible to reach in many arenas of life, it is obtained easily in others. And hence, the scientific results shouldn't be doubted merely because of their precision as they do produce precise results. The statements above provide the most support for holding that Sandra would disagree with Taylor about which one of the following statements?

    1. Research might reveal that 61 percent of the information taken in during a conversation is communicated through nonverbal signals.

    2. It is possible to determine whether 61 percent of the information taken in during a conversation is communicated through nonverbal signals.

    3. The study of verbal and nonverbal communication is an area where one cannot expect great precision in one's research results.

    4. Some sciences can yield mathematically precise results that are not inherently suspect.

    5. If inherently suspect claims are usually false, then the majority of claims made by scientists are false as well.

    Answer: d

  17. Hospital executive: At a recent conference on nonprofit management, several computer experts stressed on the fact that the biggest threat that any big instituiton faces is of maintaining and protecting the confidential data. Hence their major focus should now be on protecting the clients'confidentiality. The hospital executive's argument is most vulnerable to which one of the following objections?

    1. The argument confuses the causes of a problem with the appropriate solutions to that problem.

    2. The argument relies on the testimony of experts whose expertise is not shown to be sufficiently broad to support their general claim.

    3. The argument assumes that a correlation between two phenomena is evidence that one is the cause of the other.

    4. The argument draws a general conclusion about a group based on data about an unrepresentative sample of that group.

    5. The argument infers that a property belonging to large institutions belongs to all institutions.

    Answer: b

  18. The new developments that take place in the science are a result of proving wrong the hypotheses and testing them against observations-thereby, everytime blowing down the conventional thought procedure of human mind. In a similar fashion, some scientists are skeptical of the widely accepted predictions of global warming. What is instead remarkable is that with hundreds of researchers striving to make breakthroughs in climatology, very few find evidence that global warming is unlikely. The above information is most supported by which of the following statements?

    1. Most scientists who are reluctant to accept the global warming hypothesis are not acting in accordance with the accepted standards of scientific debate.

    2. Most researchers in climatology have substantial motive to find evidence that would discredit the global warming hypothesis.

    3. There is evidence that conclusively shows that the global warming hypothesis is true.

    4. Scientists who are skeptical about global warming have not offered any alternative hypotheses to explain climatological data.

    5. Research in global warming is primarily driven by a desire for recognition in the scientific community.

    Answer: b

  19. Historian: The Land Party emerges as a victorious party at a national level in Banestria in 1935 as it focused majorly on the bulk population residing in the rural and semi ruaral areas Banestria. After victory, it focused on the problems concerning these people such as of agriculture and small business interests. They studied the problems in deep and help them get uprooted. Each of the following, if true, strengthens the historian's argument EXCEPT:

    1. In preceding elections the Land Party made no attempt to address the interests of economically distressed urban groups.

    2. Voters are more likely to vote for a political party that focuses on their problems.

    3. The Land Party had most of its successes when there was economic distress in the agricultural sector.

    4. No other major party in Banestria specifically addressed the issues of people who lived in semirural areas in 1935.

    5. The greater the degree of economic distress someone is in, the more likely that person is to vote.

    Answer: a

  20. Gamba: Munoz claims that the Southwest Hopeville Neighbors Association proudly and confidently opposes the new water system installed and claims it to the citywide decision. For getting this opinion, it went on for voting resolution opposing the new water system, but only 25 of 350 members voted and in that too, 10 members stood in the favor of the system. The other 15 that voted against it represent far less than 1 percent of Hopeville's population. Hence it is not a citywide decision. Of the following, which one most accurately describes Gamba's strategy of argumentation?

    1. questioning a conclusion based on the results of a vote, on the grounds that people with certain views are more likely to vote

    2. stating that the statistical data can be manipulated to produce whatever view the interpreter wants to support

    3. attempting to refute an argument by showing that, contrary to what has been claimed, the truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion

    4. criticizing a view on the grounds that the view is based on evidence that is in principle impossible to disconfirm

    5. attempting to cast doubt on a conclusion by claiming that the statistical sample on which the conclusion is based is too small to be dependable

    Answer: e

  21. Driver: I have been warned continuously by my friends of an accident happening anytime as I drive my sports car recklessly. The research states that minivans and larger sedans have very low accident rates compared to sports cars. Hence I would now go for a minivan selling my sports car. That would reduce my risk of having an accident. The reasoning in the driver's argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that this argument

    1. infers a cause from a mere correlation

    2. relies on a sample that is too narrow

    3. misinterprets evidence that a result is likely as evidence that the result is certain

    4. mistakes a condition sufficient for bringing about a result for a condition necessary for doing so

    5. relies on a source that is probably not well-informed

    Answer: a

  22. Editorialist: The media of the country does not pose a full detail of the politics as a whole in front of the voters or the general public as mostly all the meeting and political undertakings are done secretly. This indirectly isolates local politicians from their electorates. Due to this, the reasons for which the local resident stands as a candidate in election to give a required positive response to its public delines and discourages resident participation. Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the editorialist's statements?

    1. Particular acts of resident participation would be likely to elicit a positive response from local politicians if those politicians were less isolated from their electorate.

    2. Local political business should be conducted less secretively so as to curb the discouragement for resident participation in local politics.

    3. The most important factor influencing a resident's decision as to whether to participate in local politics is the chance that the participation will elicit a positive official response.

    4. More-frequent thorough coverage regarding the decisons taken in local politics would reduce at least one source of discouragement from resident participation in local politics.

    5. If resident participation in local politics were not discouraged, this would cause local politicians to be less isolated from their electorate.

    Answer: d

  23. Philosopher: The definition of morally right or wrong only ranges in the fact that how it affects the aggregate well-being of the people affected by it. If the wellbeing increases, then the action is morally right and vice-versa. Thus, actions that would be reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them are also right. The philosopher's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

    1. Only wrong actions would be reasonably expected to reduce the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them.

    2. No action is both right and wrong.

    3. Any action that is not morally wrong is morally right.

    4. There are actions that would be reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them.

    5. Only right actions have good consequences.

    Answer: c

  24. Car companies conduct surveys in a form from the consumers using their model on human factors such as if a seat is comfortable or whether a set of controls is easy to use. However, rather than just surveying the data in a form, designer interaction with consumers is more helpful to the company as they would come to know which feature of the model needs to be changed or modified to get a higher rating on the feature that got lower rating previously. The reasoning above conforms most closely to which one of the following propositions?

    1. Getting consumer input for design modifications can contribute to successful product design.

    2. Car companies traditionally conduct extensive postmarket surveys.

    3. Designers aim to create features that will appeal to specific market niches.

    4. A car will have unappealing features if consumers are not consulted during its design stage.

    5. Consumer input affects external rather than internal design components of cars.

    Answer: a

  25. During the nineteenth century, the French academy of art deemed to be a major financial sponsor of painting and sculpture in France. The sponsorship by private individuals had declined drastically. However though the sponsors for both sculpture and painting were the same, there was a lot of innovation seen in the french painting but the innovation in sculpture declined as innovation in sculpture was discouraged. Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the difference between the amount of innovation in French painting and the amount of innovation in French sculpture during the nineteenth century?

    1. In France in the nineteenth century, the French academy gave more of its financial support to painting than it did to sculpture.

    2. The French academy in the nineteenth century financially supported a greater number of sculptors than painters, but individual painters received more support, on average, than individual sculptors.

    3. Because stone was so much more expensive than paint and canvas, far more unsponsored paintings were produced than were unsponsored sculptures in France during the nineteenth century.

    4. Very few of the artists in France in the nineteenth century who produced sculptures also produced paintings.

    5. Although the academy was the primary sponsor of sculpture and painting, the total amount of financial support that French sculptors and painters received from sponsors declined during the nineteenth century.

    Answer: c