NEST Biology Syllabus
These components from the topic will be included in course: Cell theory and cells as unit of life, Tools and techniques of cell studies: Use of microscope and calibration (microscopy), elements of microscope. Biomembranes: Transport mechanism, cellular respiration. Cell organelles-structure and functions. Discovery and structure of DNA, processes of replication, transcription, genetic code and translation. Principles of the basic techniques in molecular biology.
Anatomy and Physiology
Different systems in body will be included in the study curriculum such as:
Digestive System: The components of topic for study are: Modes of nutrition. Structure of alimentary canal and associated glands, digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones, Absorption of products of digestion, peristalsis, balanced diet.
Respiratory System: The components of topic for study are: Gaseous exchange in animals, Structure of respiratory organs, mechanism of breathing, gaseous transport, tissue respiration.
Circulatory System: The components of topic for study are: Open and closed systems, Functions of blood and 1ymph, Microscopic structure of blood and blood vessels. Structures and working of heart, Distribution of arteries and veins, Circulation of blood coagulation and Blood groups.
Excretory System: The components of topic for study are: Elimination of nitrogenous waste, Osmoconformers and osmoregulators, Structure and function of kidney tubules as well as arrangement of excretory organs.
Nervous System: The components of topic for study are: General account of brain, spinal cord and nerves and Reflex actions (simple and conditioned) including Sensory organs (eye and ear).
Reproductive System: The components of topic for study are: Sexual and asexual reproduction, General arrangement and functions of reproductive organs.
The topics that will be included within this concept are: Basic features of development in animals, Types of eggs, fertilization, cleavage, blastula.
Diversity of Animal Life
Principles of classification, binomial nomenclature. General classification of animal phyla upto classes (invertebrates) and upto sub-classes/order (vertebrates) will have to be studied as a part of study for animal life by all the candidates. The detailed study under this topic will include various types of organisms as indicated:
- In Protozoa category: Amoeba, Entamoeba, Paramecium, Plasmodium, Parasitic trypanosomes.
- In Coelenterata category: Hydra.
- Within the category of Platyhelminthes: Taenia and Fasciola
- Under Aschelminthes category: Ascaris
- Under the head of Annelida-Pheretima and Nereis
- In Arthropoda category: Crustaceans and Insects
- Chordata-General characters of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
Genetics and Evolution
Fundamentals of genetics and evolution is the basic theory which has to be studied. Human genetics study would include the topics of human chromosomes, sex-determination, sex-linked inheritance, Evidences and theories of organic evolution, Organisation of the heredity material in chromosomes. It would also include Equational division, Reduction division and Mitosis andBiology.
Comparison and contrasting of General Meiosis will form a part of the study. Other topics of study will include Significance of meiosis, Mendel's laws of inheritance, Discovery of linkage, sex-linked inheritance, Crossing-over, stage at which crossing-over occurs. Neurospora genetics, Mutation-discovery, types of Mutation and Mutations in diploids, Role of mutations in evolution, Elaboration of MendeL'slaws of inheritance and Monohybrid or Dihybrid crosses are the topics which the candidates have to go through:
Physical and biological factors influencing organisms are included in the study of ecology. Food chains, pyramids of numbers and biomass, Biological equilibrium and Interspecific associations also form a part of the course curriculum.
Study of botany will include Anatomy and Physiology of Plants Meristems, Plant growth and development, Internal and external regulators of growth and development in plant, Internal structure of root, stem, secondary growth and leaves. Moreover study of Xylem and Phloem: Their cell elements and functions, Internal structure of dicot and monocot leaves will also be included.
Photosynthesis study will include topics of history, importance, factors and mechanism, stomatal mechanism, transpiration and respiration. Comparativestudy of dicot and monocot anatomy, Absorption and cell-water relations, transport of water and minerals, tropicand turgor movements, Significance of life-cycles with special reference to alternation of generations asexemplified in Funaria, Selaginella and Pinus (no structural details) need to be studied for examination purpose.
Study under Systematics will include Principles of classical and new systematics, Binomial nomenclature, Familiarity with taxa, Humans and Environment Soil, rainfall and temperature with reference to natural resources. Our natural resources: Their uses and abuses and Environmental pollution and preventive measures are also to be studied.
Humans and Environment
Soil, rainfall and temperature with reference to natural resources and uses and abuses of natural environment, Environmental pollution and preventive measures are included in the study curriculum.