NEST Chemistry Syllabus

Physical Chemistry

The chemistry topic would include the most basic topics of measurements in chemistry consisting of SI units for fundamental quantities, significant figures, significant figures in calculations.

The general topics that it will cover will include concept of atoms and molecules, Dalton's atomic theory, Mole concept, Chemical formulae, Balanced chemical equations. Also calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality will be included.

The concept of gaseous and liquid states will include topics of absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation, deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation, kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature, law of partial pressures, vapour pressure and diffusion of gases.

The topic of atomic structure and chemical bonding will include concepts of Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers, waveparticle duality, de Broglie hypothesis, uncertainty principle, qualitative quantum mechanical picture ofhydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36), aufbau principle, paauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, orbital overlap and covalent bond, hybridisationinvolving s, p and d orbitals only, orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species, hydrogen bond, polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only), VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).

The concept of Energetics will include first law of thermodynamics, internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work, Enthalpy, Hess's law, heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization. Also Second law of thermodynamics, Entropy, free energy and criterion of spontaneity will be included.

The topic of chemical equilibrium will consist of law of mass action, equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure), significance of G and Go in chemical equilibrium, solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions, acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts) as well as hydrolysis of salts.

The electrochemistry will include electrochemical cells and cell reactions, standard electrode potentials, Nernst equation, electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells, Faraday's laws of electrolysis, electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch's law and concentration cells.

The concept of chemical kinetics will include rates of chemical reactions, order of reactions, rate constant, first order reactions and temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

The solid state concept of physical chemistry will include classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, alpha, beta, gamma), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices, nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

The solutions concept includes Raoult's law, molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

The Nuclear chemistry in physical chemistry would include radioactivity, isotopes and isobars, properties of alpha, beta and gamma rays, kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating, stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio, brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry

Study of different groups in periodic table forms a part of study for the students.

Group 1A will include Preparation, properties and reactions of alkali metals, with emphasis on chemistry of Na and K and their compounds, oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates.

Group 2A will include preparation, properties and reactions alkaline earth metals with emphasis on Mg and Ca and their compounds such as oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates.

Group 3A will include chemistry of Boron and its compounds, diborane.

Group 8A including preparation, properties and reactions inert gases with emphasis on chemistry of Xenon.

Group 7A will consist of halogen chemistry with special emphasis on chemistry of chlorine.

Study of nonmetals would include C, S, N, P (especially oxides and oxy acids compounds of these elements, in addition phosphines for P, ammonia for N) and O (peroxide and ozone), Si (silicones and silicates). Along with it, the allotropic study of C, S, N should be covered.

The concept of transition elements (3d series) will include its definition, general characteristics, variable oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment.

In a similar manner, coordination compounds will include nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, squareplanar and octahedral).

The study under metals and metallurgy would include general methods involving chemical principles, general operation stages involved inmetallurgical operation. Metallurgy of p-block element (emphasis on Al). Metallurgy of Fe-triad (Fe, Co, And Ni with more emphasis on Fe metallurgy), metallurgy of coinage metals (Cu, Ag with more emphasis on Cu).

Organic Chemistry

The basic concepts of organic chemistry will include hybridisation of carbon, sigma and pi-bonds, shapes of simple organic molecules, structural and geometrical isomerism, optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres (R, S and E, Znomenclature excluded), IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, monofunctional and bi-functional compounds), conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections), resonance and hyperconjugation, Keto-enol tautomerism, determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simplecompounds (only combustion method), Hydrogen bonds along with their definition and their effects on physical properties ofalcohols and carboxylic acids, inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases, polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides, reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolyticbond cleavage. The formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals has to be studied. Moreover, preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes, their homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density), combustion and halogenation of alkanes, preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions are to be studied. Further, preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes, their physical properties (boiling points, density and dipole moments), acidity of alkynes, acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination), reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone, reduction of alkenes and alkynes, preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions, electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X = halogen), addition reactions of alkynes and metal acetylides are also included.

Reactions of benzene, their structure and aromaticity also will be included. Electrophilic substitution reactions i.e.. Halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, effect of o-, m-and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes need to be studied.

The students need to study phenols, its acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation). Reimer-Tiemanreaction, Kolbe reaction.

Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above) are also included in the curriculum.

Within alkyl halides, rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions are to be studied.

In alcohols, esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones are to be studied.

The reaction of ethers, their preparation by Williamson'sSynthesis is included in the course.

In aldehydes and Ketones, reactions of oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation, aldol condensation, Perkin reaction, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition) should be studied.

The reactions between carboxylic acids, formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis needs to be studied.

In amines, basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azocoupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts, carbylamine reaction are included in the course.

Lastly the reactions of haloarenes, consisting of nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution) are to be studied including carbohydrate reactions with their classification, mono and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose), Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

Amino acids and peptides reactions will include general structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties along with few examples for separation of amino acid mixture using physical properties.