Cusec and Comet, Antibiotics and Vaccines, Periscope & Perimeter, Hydrometer & Hygrometer

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Cusec and Comet

  • Cusec; Cusec is a measure of flow rate and is informal shorthand for cubic feet per second (28.317 litres per second).

  • Comet: A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmosphere) and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei range from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles. Comets have been observed since ancient times and have traditionally been considered bad omens. Telescope and Microscope are two scientific instruments that serve their purposes differently. One of the main differences between a telescope and a microscope is that a telescope is used to view things that are far whereas a microscope is used to view things that are very near.

  • It is indeed true both the instruments are used to watch the minute details of the objects or things more clearly. Another important difference between telescope and microscope is that the focal length or the distance from the focal point to the lens is different in these two scientific instruments. As a result of this the focal point in the case of a telescope may be at a far off place. On the other hand the focal point in the case of a microscope is just a fraction of an inch off.

  • The difference in the diameter of the lens used in the two instruments also matter a lot when it comes to the difference between them. The lens diameter or the aperture is much larger in a telescope. This is to ensure that the aperture allows tiny amount of natural light at the focal point.

  • On the other hand only artificial illumination is used in a microscope. The artificial illumination is made to fall at the focal point in a microscope. It is interesting to note that a telescope and a microscope differ from each other in terms of the curvature of the lens.

  • A microscope is used to look into smaller details like the structure of the cells and the unicellular organism. On the other hand larger objects that are very far off are the targets of a telescope. In short it can be said that a telescope is used to look into space. Magnification is the keyword in both the scientific instruments.

Antibiotics and Vaccines

  • Vaccine kills virus while antibiotics kill bacteria.

  • Vaccine is taken once and has permanent effect whereas antibiotics work during the time of disease.

  • Antibiotics are available in different forms like tablets, capsules, drops or ointments. Vaccines can be given orally or through injection.

  • Vaccines are preventive method that is taken before getting infected. Antibiotics are taken after getting infected.

OR

  • Vaccines act against most microorganism, whereas antibiotics act against bacteria.

  • Vaccines are provided before the manifestation of the infection, but antibiotics are given mostly after.

  • Vaccines usually have a specific single type of microbe, whereas antibiotics would act against a multitude of species.

  • Vaccines enhance the natural immunity, and antibiotics cause destruction of the biochemistry of the organism.

  • Vaccines are highly effective against organism, but there may be resistance to antibiotics needing the development of newer antibiotics.

  • Both have equally lethal complications, but vaccines carry a lesser range of complications related to antibiotics.

  • Myopia: Myopia (short sightedness) is an eye disease in which the patient cannot see the distant objects clearly. This disease can be corrected by using convex lenses in glasses.

  • Hyperopia: Hyperopia (long sightedness) is defect of vision in which a person cannot see the clearly objects lying close to him. The disease can be corrected by using convex lenses in glasses.

Periscope & Perimeter

  • Periscope: Instrument used by submarines to see above the surface of the sea.

  • Perimeter: A perimeter is a path that surrounds an area. The word comes from the Greek Peri (around) and meter (measure).

  • The term may be used either for the path or its length - it can be thought of as the length of the outline of a shape. The perimeter of a circular area is called circumference.

X-Rays & Gamma Rays

  • Gamma rays cause more harm to human body than the X- rays.

  • Gamma rays have shorter wavelengths than the X-rays.

  • X rays are emitted by the electrons outside the nucleus, and gamma rays are emitted by the excited nucleus itself.

  • X rays are used in hospitals for taking X-rays but gamma rays are not.

Hydrometer & Hygrometer

Hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity of liquids. It should be noted that specific gravity is the ration of the density of the liquids to density of water.

Hygrometer: A hygrometer is an instrument used to measure relative humidity. A simple form of hygrometer consists of two thermometers, one of which has a dry bulb and the other, a wet bulb.

Perimeter & Telemeter

Perimeter

A perimeter is a path that surrounds an area. The word comes from the Greek Peri (around) and meter (measure). The term may be used either for the path or its length - it can be thought of as the length of the outline of a shape. The perimeter of a circular area is called circumference.

Telemeter

A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure a quantity. Telemeters are generally the physical devices used in telemetry. Electronic devices are widely used in telemetry and can be wireless or hard-wired, analogue or digital. Other technologies are possible, however, such as mechanical, hydraulic and optical.

Isotope & Isomer

Isotope

Isotopes are different types of atoms of same element whose atoms of same element whose atomic number is same but atomic mass is different. Isotopes have similar chemical properties but different physical properties.

Isomers

Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties unless they have same functional groups.

OR

Isotopes and Isomers

  • An isotope refers strictly to pure elements. Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei are called isotopes. For instance, hydrogen-1 (1H) and hydrogen-2 (2H or deuterium) are isotopes of each other.

  • An isomer refers strictly to molecules. Two molecules that have the same composition (i.e., the same molecular formula) but are different in the connectivity, shape or orientation, are called isomers. For instance, n-propanol (1-propanol) and isopropanol (2-propanol or rubbing alcohol) are isomers of each other. Ethanol is not an isomer of propanol, however, because they have different formulas.

Flying Mammal & Bird

Flying Mammals

  • Mammals are the class of animals which give birth to live offspring and feed their young ones on milk from their breast.

  • Flying mamma is the type of animal which belongs to mammalian group with additional quality of flying.

  • Bats are representative animals of this group.

  • Bats have many unusual characteristics.

  • They cannot walk very well because of skin that reaches over its front and back legs.

  • It flies at night and stays in caves and other dark places during the day.

  • Hanging upside down by the claws of its back legs, it looks like flying mice.

Birds

  • Birds are winged, bipedal, endothermic warm-blooded, egg laying vertebrate animals.

  • There are around 10,000 living species across the world.

  • All birds have fore-limbs modified as wings and most can fly with few exceptions like ratites, penguins and number of various island species.

Difference between Bats and Birds

  • The variation between bats and birds is their structure and class. Bats came from the Chiroptera and Aves family. Bats are webbed structured flying animals while birds are feathered winged animals. Bats are mammals, so they don’t lay eggs, compared to birds that are known as egg-laying animals. When flying, bats don’t flap their forelimbs completely compared to birds.

  • Generally, bats have teeth which help them when eating while birds have beaks in picking up food and eating them. Bats are nocturnal animals; they hunt and go around their business at night and sleep during the day while birds work and hunt for food during daytime and sleep at night.

Typhoons & Tornado

  • Hurricane (also called typhoons) is a result of tropical disturbance on a water body, while a tornado is always formed on land.

  • A tropical storm is labelled a hurricane if it takes place between Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, but the same storm is called a cyclone if it takes place in Indian Ocean.

  • Though both have eyes or centre, the centre of a tornado can be huge, extending up to 20 miles in diameter, whereas the eye of a tornado is very small being only a few feet in diameter

  • Hurricanes occur in the months of June to November, whereas Tornados occur in the months of April to June

  • Tornados last for a few minutes or hours, whereas hurricanes can have a very long duration lasting for 2-3 weeks.

  • Thunderstorms are effects of hurricanes, whereas they are the cause of a tornado

  • Hurricanes can cause floods and tsunamis, whereas tornados spread epidemics and also contaminate water sources.

OR

  • A tornado is a violently rotating column of air extending from the base of a thunderstorm to the ground. In weather terms tornadoes are small, 50 yards wide on average and rarely exceeding a mile wide, though on rare occasions tornadoes up to 2.5 miles wide have occurred. Tornadoes are also short lived, lasting 10 minutes on average, though a few have lasted for over 3 hours. Tornadoes form from interactions of air currents in a thunderstorm.

  • Hurricanes and typhoons are essentially the same thing, only a hurricane is in the Atlantic Ocean or north-eastern Pacific Ocean while a typhoon is in the north western Pacific ocean. Both are tropical cyclones with winds of at least 74 mph. In addition to having strong winds these storms bring heavy rain and flooding. The average hurricane/ typhoon is about 300 miles wide and forms over the course of several days. Unlike tornadoes, which are generally as land-based event these systems develop from disorganized clusters of thunderstorms that feed of the moisture from warm ocean water, organize, and intensify.

Microscope & Telescope

  • Telescope and Microscope are two scientific instruments that serve their purposes differently. One of the main differences between a telescope and a microscope is that a telescope is used to view things that are far whereas a microscope is used to view things that are very near.

  • It is indeed true both the instruments are used to watch the minute details of the objects or things more clearly. Another important difference between telescope and microscope is that the focal length or the distance from the focal point to the lens is different in these two scientific instruments. As a result of this the focal point in the case of a telescope may be at a far off place. On the other hand the focal point in the case of a microscope is just a fraction of an inch off.

  • The difference in the diameter of the lens used in the two instruments also matter a lot when it comes to the difference between them. The lens diameter or the aperture is much larger in a telescope. This is to ensure that the aperture allows tiny amount of natural light at the focal point. On the other hand only artificial illumination is used in a microscope. The artificial illumination is made to fall at the focal point in a microscope. It is interesting to note that a telescope and a microscope differ from each other in terms of the curvature of the lens.

  • A microscope is used to look into smaller details like the structure of the cells and the unicellular organism. On the other hand larger objects that are very far off are the targets of a telescope. In short it can be said that a telescope is used to look into space. Magnification is the keyword in both the scientific instruments.

Ultrasonics & Infrasonic

Ultrasonics

The study of sound aves with high frequencies beyond the upper limit of human hearing or 20 thousand Hz. This technique is employed to locate a tumour, to scan a pregnant woman’s abdomen in order to produce a picture of foetus or to treat certain neurotically disorders.

Infrasonic

These are the sound waves which have the frequencies lowest than the lowest limits of human hearing or 20 Hz.

OR

  • The sounds having frequency more than 20,000 hertz (Hz) are called ultrasonic or ultrasound and the sounds having frequency less than 20 Hz are called infrasonic or infrasound. Both of these sounds cannot be heard by human beings. The audible range for of hearing by human beings is 20 Hz to 20000 Hz. Antibodies:

  • Protein synthesized in the blood in response to the entry of foreign substances or organisms into the body. When the body get infected through virus or bacteria, specific antibody is produced which fights the disease.

  • Antibiotics: These are substances which can stop the growth or destroy the bacteria or other microorganisms. The antibiotics are used to eliminate fatal diseases such as typhoid, plague and cholera etc.

OR

  • Antibodies l they are what your body produces in response to the presence of antigens (bacterial or viral surface structures) l they merely assist your white blood cells in identifying l they also destroy and invade the unidentified microorganisms.

  • Antibiotics l they are chemicals that work to destroy invading bacteria (usually by disrupting the outer cell wall and making it “leak” or by messing up the bacteria’s metabolic processes. They are not produced by the body) l Antibiotics can be antibacterial or antiviral. Antibacterial will only destroy bacteria and antiviral will only destroy viruses. There are not many antibiotics for viruses. Also a virus is not a eukaryote.

Antigen & Vaccine

Antigen

  • A substance or organism that induces the production of an antibody. The antigen reacts with antibody. The antigen tissue proteins can cause problems in the transplant of organs by rejecting the introduction of new organ in the body.

  • An antigen is a foreign molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system. The immune system will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader. These invaders can be molecules such as pollen or cells such as bacteria.

  • The term originally came from antibody generator and was a molecule that binds specifically to an antibody, but the term now also refers to any molecule or molecular fragment that can be bound by a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and presented to a T-cell receptor. “Self” antigens are usually tolerated by the immune system; whereas “Non-self” antigens are identified as invaders and attacked by the immune system. Self-antigens.

Vaccine

  • The agent which is used to give immunity against various diseases. A vaccine consists of modified disease organisms such as live weakened viruses or dead that can induce the production of antibodies within the blood. A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.

  • A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and “remember” it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.

  • Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or “wild” pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine).

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