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General Studies: Important for Exam: Psychology Paper 1 Part 2

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Direction: The strength of Indian Democracy lies in its tradition, in the fusion of the ideas of democracy and national independence which was the characteristic of the Indian Nationalist Movement long before independence. Although the British retained supreme authority in India until 1947, the provincial elections of 1937 provided real exercise in democratic practice before national independence. During the Pacific war India was not overrun or seriously invaded by the Japanese and after the war was over, the transfer of power to a government of the Indian Congress Party was a peaceful one as far as Britain was concerned. By 1947 ‘Indianization’ had already gone far in the Indian Civil Service and Army, so that the new government could start with effective instruments of central control. After independence, however, India was faced with two vast problems; the first, that of economic growth from a very low level of production and the second was that of ethnic diversity and the aspirations of sub nationalities. The Congress leadership was more aw are of the former problem than of the second. As a new political elite which had rebelled not only against the British Raj but also against India՚s old social order, they were conscious of the need to initiate economic development and undertake social reforms, but as nationalists who had led a struggle against the alien rule on behalf of all parts of India, they took the cohesion of the Indian nation too much for granted and underestimated the centrifugal forces of ethnic division, which were bound to be accentuated rather than diminished as the popular masses w ere more and more drawn into politics. The Congress party was originally opposed to the idea of recognizing any division of India on a linguistic basis and preferred to retain the old provinces of British India which often cut across linguistic boundaries. However, this was later conceded as the basis for a federal ‘Indian Union’ . The rights granted to the States created new problems for the Central Government.

The idea of making Hindi the national language of a united India was thwarted by the recalcitrance of the speakers of other important Indian languages and the autonomy of the States rendered central economic planning extremely difficult. Land reforms remained under the control of the States and many large-scale economic projects required a degree of cooperation between the Central Government and one or more of the States which, it was found, was impossible to achieve. Coordination of policies was difficult even when the Congress party was in power both in the State and at the Centre. When a Congress Government in Delhi was confronted with non-Congress parties in office in the States, it became much harder.

Q. Which of the following problems was India faced with after Independence?

(A) Military attack from a country across the border.

(B) Lack of coordination between the Central and State Governments.

(C) Improper coordination of various Government policies

(D) Increasing the production from a very low level

Answer: D

Q. Which of the following issues was not appropriately realized by the Central Government.

(A) Ethnic diversity of the people

(B) A national language for the country

(C) Implementation of the formulated policies

(D) Centre -State relations

Answer: A

Q. Why was central economic planning found to be difficult?

(A) Multiplicity of States and Union Territories

(B) Lack of coordination in different Government departments

(C) Autonomy given to the States in certain matters

(D) Lack of will in implementing land reforms

Answer: C

Q. Why was the linguistic reorganization of the State accepted?

(A) The States w ere not cooperating with the Central Government

(B) Non- Congress Governments in the States demanded such a reorganization of the States

(C) No common national language emerged

(D) Strong pressure from the States was exerted on the Central Government to create such States

Answer: D

Q. Which, according to the passage, can be cited as an exercise in democratic practice in India before Independence?

(A) The handing over of power by the British to India

(B) The Indianization of the Indian Civil Service

(C) A neutral role played by the Army

(D) None of the above

Answer: B

Q. The information to be collected in survey method are related to

(A) Present Position

(B) Aims of the research

(C) The attainment of aim of research

(D) All of the above

Answer: D

Q. Research is done for

(A) Know ledge of research process

(B) Solving a business problem

(C) Interest in research

(D) Experience

Answer: B

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