Styles of Temples & Three Sub Schools: Odisha, Chandella and Solanki for NTA (UGC)-NET

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Styles of Temples

  • The Shilpashastra recognizes three styles along with a geographical distribution of each.
  • Nagara style-northern region
  • Dravida style-southern region
  • Vesara style-region between the vindhyas and the krishna

Nagara Style

Nagara Style
  • Crucified ground plan.
  • Square or rectangular temple.
  • garbhgriha
  • Panchayatan style
  • Each vertical plane was divided in three vertical walls 3 ratha used to do sculptures.
  • Absence of tank (tank was the main feature of Dravidian style)
  • Pillared approach
  • Shikhara gradually curving inwards-curvilinear tower 9 shikhara)
  • Developed regionally.

Three Subschools

  • Odisha school
  • Chandella school/Khajuraho school
  • Solanki school-maru-gurjar school

Odisha School

Odisha Temples
  • Time period 8th to 13th century
  • Part of Nagara School.
  • All features of nagara style are present.
  • Exterior walls are beautifully carved and Interior walls are plain.
  • No use of pillars.
  • Technical innovation Use of iron girders the roof was partly supported by these iron girdars.
  • The shikhar in this Odisha style is called Deul
  • Mandap (assembly hall) is called jagmohan
  • Ground plan of main temple square
  • They have boundary walls
  • Erotic sculptures found on the walls of kornak temple
  • Ex. Lingraja temple, Bhuvneshwar
  • Konark temple, Rajarani temple

Chandella School/Khajuraho School

Khajuraho Temple
  • Integrated carvings on both interior and exterior walls.
  • Temple stands on heigher terrace comparatively.
  • Temple has main three elements
  • Garbhgriha
  • Mandap
  • Portico
  • Theme of sculpture erotic themes taken from kamsutra.
  • Impression of mountain range from distance
  • Panchayatan style
  • Ex. kandaria mahadeo temple

Solanki School/Maru Gurjar Style

Sloanki Architecture
  • Branch of later chalukyas
  • Not fundamentally different from khajuraho.
  • Main feature minute and lovely decorativeness
  • The ceillings are carved to give the impression of a true dome.
  • Arch like effect but no true arch was employed.
  • Mostly of sandstone.
  • Grey to black basaltic stone.
  • Lavish carving on both sides of the walls and sculpture work.
  • Walls of central shrine devoid of carving.
  • Civic type of monuments
  • Ex. gateway of dhubai,
  • Delwara, vastupal, vimala and tejpala jain temples at mount abu, rajasthan
  • Jayastambh at chittor
Jain Temples
  • Temple faces the east.
  • Every year at the time of equinox, the sun shines directly into this central shrine.
  • 3 principal components
  • A rectangular reservoir with flagged flights of steps interspaced by small shrines.
  • The lofty kirtitoranaa
  • Open pillared half of cruciform shape

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