# Hypothesis Testing YouTube Lecture Handouts for NTA (UGC)-NET

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## Hypothesis Testing

Types of Errors & p-Region

## Null Hypothesis (H0)

• No statistical significance between the two variables.

• Researcher is trying to disprove it.

• Individual is free from disease

• Relationship is due to chance

## Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)

• Statistical significance between the two variables.

• Researcher is trying to approve it

• Individual has disease

• Relationship is not due to chance

• If is accepted, is rejected

## Errors in Hypothesis

 True Decision About Retain CORRECT Decision About Reject Type I Error (α)

## Type I Error

• Reject when its true

• α error

• Error of first kind

• Error of excessive credulity

• False positive

• Poor specificity

• If a test shows that a person has kidney stone when in reality he/she does not

## P-Value

Probability of obtaining an effect at least as extreme as the one in your sample data, assuming the truth of the null hypothesis.

## Errors in Hypothesis

 True False Decision About Retain CORRECT Type II Error Decision About Reject Type I Error (α) CORRECT

## Type II Error

• Accept 𝐻_0 when its false

• β error

• Error of second kind

• Error of excessive skepticism

• False negative

• Low sensitivity

• If a test shows that a person is not having kidney stone when in reality he/she does have a kidney stone.

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