NTA (UGC) NET Paper 1 Communication and Technology: INSAT

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The INSAT system for telecommunication, television broadcasting and meteorology has received a great success during the year with the successful launch ofINSAT-3C on January 24, 2002. INSAT-3C will not only augment the present INSAT system but also continue the services of some of the satellites that need to be phased out at the end of their mission life. INSAT is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the world with five satellites, INSAT-2C, INSAT-2DT, INSAT-2E, INSAT-3B and INSAT-3C. The INSAT system also consists a few transponders leased from other agencies for meeting the current demands. Planning of IN SAT-4 series of satellites has been started firstly on the basis of detailed discussions with the various users. Seven satellites are proposed in the INSAT-4 series. Experimental communication satellites, OSATa, are built, which are launched during the developmental test flights of GSLV. Besides the use of INSAT for telecommunication, broadcasting and meteorological services, focus must be on utilising the system for grassroots level applications like developmental communication and satellite based training. New initiatives'have been taken for utilising INSAT for introduction of tele-medicine to make speciality treatment accessible to the population an remote areas. The Indian remote sensing satellite system, IRS, which has the biggest constellation of satellites, continues to give space-based remote sensing data for 8 number of applications in India and abroad. Currently, IRS system has five satellites namely, LRS-lC, IRS-1D, IRS-P3, fRS-P4 (OCEANSAT) and Technology Experiment Satellite (TES).

The TES has given further fillip to advance the technology of remote sensing in India. It has enabled testing new satellite hardware and demonstrating newer remote sensing techniques. It focuses on a panchromatic camera giving a spatial resolution of up to 1 m. Remote sensing satellites like RESOURCESAT, CARTOSAT-I and CARTOSAT-2, is progressing well. They will not only continue the services of the present IRS satellites but 8. Lso enhance the service capabilities. CARTOSAT-l is already in service. The remote sensing applications continue to expand to several new areas; the data has been used to assess damage due to floods, earthquakes, etc. And for helping in relief operations. Remote Sensing Data Policy (RSDP) was announced which helps in streamline the availability of remote sensing data from indian and foreign satellites to users in India. The launch of two satellites. One of Belgium and another of Germany on board PSLV marks an crucial event during the year under commercial marketing of India's space capabilities. Data from IRS satellites continue to be received by various ground stations worldwide. The lease agreement of transponders on board INSAT-2E to INTELSAT remain continued.

Space Transportation

Space Transportation system consists the satellite launch vehicles to place satellites like I NSAT and IRS and scientific satellites in the requisite orbits as well as the sounding rockets for carrying out short duration scientific experiments. India made a modest beginning in this area with the launch of a 75 mm diameter sounding rocket in 1963 for investigation of ionosphere over the gee-magnetic equator over Thumba, near Thiruvananthapuram. Since then, India has attained an image of substantial capability in the design, development and operationalisation of a series of sounding rockets for scientific investigations, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV, for launching Indian remote sensing satellites and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, GSLV for launching geostationary communication satellites.

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