# Hypothesis YouTube Lecture Handouts for NTA (UGC)-NET

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: Hypothesis Testing in Research Methodology: 2 Errors (Alpha & Beta); P-Region

Hypothesis Testing in Research Methodology: 2 Errors (Alpha & Beta); P-Region

## Hypothesis – Research

Insufficient Evidence Can be true or false

## Concept

• Tentative solution to a problem

• May or may not be correct

• Clear

• Precise

• Testable

• Consistent with facts

• Logical simplicity

## Why Important?

• Direction to research

• Operationalize procedure

• Select facts

• Replicate research

• Draw logical conclusion

• Relation between variables

• Provides a statement deduced from theory

## Aims to Find?

• Difference

• Relationship (Statistically significant – Implies difference in result did not occur by chance)

• Interaction

## Null Hypothesis (H0)

• No statistical significance between the two variables.

• Researcher is trying to disprove it.

• Individual is free from disease

• Relationship is due to chance

## Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)

• Statistical significance between the two variables.

• Researcher is trying to approve it

• Individual has disease

• Relationship is not due to chance

• If is accepted, is rejected

## Substantive vs. Statistical

• Substantive – expected relation b/w variables, not operationalized

• Statistical – operationalized in terms of statistical parameter

## Simple vs. Complex

• Simple – 1 IV & 1 DV

• Complex – 2 or more IV & 2 or more DV

## Practical vs. Statistical

• Practical – In terms of practical outcomes

• Statistical – In statistical outcomes

## Positive, Negative or Null

• Null – no relation b/w IV & DV

• Positive

• Negative

## Universal vs. Existential

• Universal – all variables are true at all times

“Brave soldiers if rewarded will perform well”

• Existential – exist atleast for one particular case

“Few corporate staff might not perform well despite reward”

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