Unit VIII ICT Crash Course – Quick Revision (Terms & Concepts) Based on New Paper 1 Syllabus for 2021

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Syllabus

  • Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT) ICT: General abbreviations and terminology. Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing. Digital initiatives in higher education. ICT and Governance
  • What is computer?
  • Components
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Input-Output
  • Motherboard – Components
  • Firmware
  • System Software
  • Application Software
  • System software - controls the overall operation of the system
  • Data Storage
  • Volatile and Non-Volatile Memory
  • Accessibility
  • Mutability
  • Addressability
  • Formatting – OS
  • Primary Computer Data Storage: Directly accessed by the processor.
  • Secondary Computer Data Storage: Storage is accessed is via the input or output type of channels.
    • Hard Disk Drive
    • Solid State Drive
    • Floppy Disk Drive
  • Tertiary Computer Data Storage: These involve use of specific mechanisms to insert & dismount certain removable storage medias into specific storage devices as per requirement
    • Tape Library
    • Optical Library: Also called robotic drives, or auto-changers. Jukebox devices can have 2,000 slots for disks, & typically has picking device to traverses slots & drives.
  • Non-Volatile Memory: These retain stored information even after power is removed & is suitable for long-term storage of information.
  • Volatile Memory: Constant power is required to maintain the stored information & fastest memory technologies like RAM are volatile.
  • Processing – Serial and Batch
  • Microprocessor
  • Components of Microprocessor
  • Warm Boot
  • Cold Boot
  • Stage of Computer – Booting, Crash, Hibernation, Standby, Wakeup
  • It is often used in contrast to a warm boot, which refers to restarting a computer once it has been turned on. A cold boot is typically performed by pressing the power button on the computer.
  • Binary – Decimal
  • Data – Bit, Byte, KiB, MB, GB
  • CPU runs the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
  • POST (Power On Self-Test)
  • RAM & ROM
  • ROM (Read-only memory) - Flash memory
    • BIOS (Basic Input Output System) - to start the system (before the operating system)
  • Primary memory is generally RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • fast data access, Volatile power goes, data go, expensive
  • Network
  • Internet – www; telnet
  • Moore՚s law
  • Malicious programs
  • Infectious malware
  • Concealed program
  • Annoying program
  • Computer classification – size, PC type, handheld PCs
  • LAN
  • WAN
  • Network Interface Card
  • Media Access Control Addresses
  • Firewall
  • Protocol
  • IP Address
  • MIME: It stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Virtual reality
  • Smart devices (even w/o internet)
  • Augmented reality
  • IoT
  • Wearable computing
  • Mixed Reality
  • Cybernetics
  • Augmented reality is used to enhance natural environments or situations and offer perceptually enriched experiences.
  • Mixed reality (MR) not just overlays but anchors virtual objects to the real world.
  • Word cybernetics is derived from Greek word, which means “science of steering of ships” .
  • Ampere, 1st used this word to define it as the science of societal control.
  • Weiner used it as science of communication and control.
  • MIS
  • Jay Galbraith Classification
  • Education – TV Media
  • History of Computing

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