Unit IX People and Environment Crash Course – Quick Revision (Terms & Concepts) Based on New Paper 1 Syllabus for 2022

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Unit-IX People, Development and Environment

  • Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.
  • Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.
  • Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic) , Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

  • Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.
  • Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.
  • Environmental Protection Act (1986) , National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

Basic Geography











Energy Flow

Food Chain

Food Web


Ecological Pyramid

Biotic Abiotic







Population Growth

Carrying Capacity

Cycles - Carbon, water, nitrogen

Adaptation, Modification & Acclimatization

Types of Pollution

Title: Types of Pollution
  • Smog
  • Air Quality Index
  • 5 Major Pollutants:
    • Carbon Monoxide
    • Sulfur Dioxide
    • Nitrogen Dioxide
    • Particulate Matter
    • Ground Level Ozone
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Global Warming
  • Thinning of Ozone Layer
  • Acid Rain
  • Indoor Air Pollution
  • Water purification – biological and physical process
  • Groundwater pollution
  • Algal bloom
  • Oil pollution
  • Radioactive pollution
  • Stockholm Declaration, 1972: United Nations Conference on Human Environment gave this declaration & its document was composed of 7 proclamations & 26 principles to guide people to preserve & enhance human environment.
  • Belgrade Charter, 1975: It was the result of International Workshop on Environmental Education at Belgrade, Yugoslavia & was based on Stockholm Declaration. It added goals, objectives, & guiding principles for environmental education & defined audiences.
  • Tbilisi Declaration, 1977: Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education in Tbilisi, Georgia gave this declaration & highlighted importance of environmental education to conserve & improve world՚s environment & balanced development of the world՚s communities. It was an updated version of Stockholm Declaration & Belgrade Charter.
  • 1972՚s United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. Refer Stockholm declaration.
  • 1983՚s World Commission on Environment & Development or Brundtland Commission to address need to accelerate deterioration of human environment & natural resources, & its consequences for economic & social development.
  • 1992՚s United Nations Conference on Environment & Development (UNCED or Rio Summit, Rio Conference, or Earth Summit)
  • 2002՚s World Summit on Sustainable Development.
  • Volcano
  • Earthquake
  • Plate tectonics
  • Tsunami
  • Cyclone
  • Indoor Pollution
  • Soil Erosion
  • Deforestation
  • Climate change
  • Ozone depletion
  • Greenhouse effect and global warming
  • Biodiversity: Reduction & conservation
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Ozone – Formation, Destruction
  • Cause
  • Consequence
  • Montreal Protocol
  • IUCN Classification
  • In-Situ & Ex-Situ
  • Species Conservation
  • Emissions Trading: It is also called “carbon market” & aims to control pollution by giving economic incentives to achieve reductions in pollutants emissions & is a form of carbon pricing.
  • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) : It is one of the flexibility mechanisms where “Annex I” parties are industrialized countries while Non-Annex I parties are developing countries. Annex I nations have binding GHG emissions targets. This mechanism intends to meet two objectives:
    • To assist non-Annex I parties to achieve sustainable development & to contribute to final objective of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) , which aims to prevent dangerous climate change.
    • To assist Annex I parties to achieve compliance with GHG emission caps i.e.. . , their quantified emission limitation & reduction commitments.
  • Joint Implementation (JI) : It helps Annex I nations to meet their obligations. Any Annex I nation can invest in emission reduction projects (Joint Implementation Projects) in any other Annex I nation as an alternative to decrease emissions domestically.
  • European community in 1989 proposed complete ban on the use of in 1990՚s.
  • In December 1995, more than 100 nations decided to phase out production of the pesticide methyl bromide, which led to 15 % of ozone depletion by year 2000.

National Action Plan on Climate Change

8 govt missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

  • National Solar Mission
    • This initiative started in 2010 to promote the use of solar power.
      • Recently, in January this year, India achieved 20 gw (giga watt) cumulative solar capacity -- achieving the milestone four years ahead of the target for 2022 originally set in the National Solar Mission.
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
    • The initiative was undertaken to promote the market for energy efficiency by fostering innovative policies and effective market instruments.
    • In 2009, it was approved ‘in principle’ by the PM՚s Council on Climate Change.
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
    • Approved by the PM in 2011, it aims to make cities sustainable through improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, management of solid waste and shift to public transport.
    • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs backs the mission.
  • National Water Mission
    • The mission was put in place to ensure integrated water resource management helping to conserve water, minimize wastage and ensure more equitable distribution both across and within states.
    • This mission is one of the most proactive ones and is backed by the National Water Policy as well as the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
    • A multi-pronged, cross-cutting mission across various sectors, in 2014.
    • Aimed at protecting the Himalayas, it has mapped institutes and civil society organisations working on the Himalayan ecology for ease of coordination between governmental and non-governmental agencies.
  • National Mission for a Green India
    • Also termed as the Green India Mission/Scheme, it aims at protecting; restoring and enhancing India՚s diminishing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.
    • Driven by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, it received the nod of approval from the Cabinet in 2014.
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
    • Another one of the govt՚s most efficient missions, it has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rain-fed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.
    • Livestock-based farming systems to create sustainable livelihoods in drought prone districts of Andhra Pradesh. (Image: National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture website)
    • It got the nod back in 2010, and has recently got approval for one of its key missions -- National bamboo mission -- by the Cabinet.

National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

  • The mission seeks to build a dynamic and vibrant knowledge system that informs and supports national policy and action for responding effectively to climate change challenges, while not compromising on the nation՚s growth goals.
  • Department of Science and Technology drives the mission, and a recent development under the mission was the govt՚s approval for establishing Karnataka՚s first climate change lab.
    • Power Generation: The government is mandating the retirement of inefficient coal-fired power plants and supporting the research and development of IGCC and supercritical technologies.
    • Renewable Energy: Under the Electricity Act 2003 and the National Tariff Policy 2006, the central and the state electricity regulatory commissions must purchase a certain percentage of grid-based power from renewable sources.
    • Energy Efficiency: Under the Energy Conservation Act 2001, large energy-consuming industries are required to undertake energy audits and an energy labelling program for appliances has been introduced.
  • International Solar Alliance
  • Global Solar Atlas
  • KUSUM (Kisan Urja Suraksha Evam Utthaan Mahaabhiyan)
  • International Renewable Energy Alliance
  • The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is an alliance of more than 121 countries initiated by India, most of them located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
  • The aim of ISA is to have 1000 GW (or 1 TW) solar power capacity by 2030 that is triple the amount of solar energy in entire world. This would require $ 1 trillion.
  • National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) in Gwal Pahari, Gurugram with 5-acre land would be the headquarters of ISA in India