Method of People Development and Environment for Paper 1 Unit IX (People Development and Environment) as Per New 2021 Syllabus

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People, Development and Environment

  • The term environment has been derived from a French word “Environia” means to surround. It refers to both abiotic (physical or non-living) and biotic (living) environment. The word environment means surroundings, in which organisms live.
  • Environment and the organisms are two dynamic and complex component of nature. Environment regulates the life of the organisms including human beings. Human beings interact with the environment more vigorously than other living beings. Ordinarily environment refers to the materials and forces that surrounds the living organism.

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  • Environment is the sum total of conditions that surrounds us at a given point of time and space. It is comprised of the interacting systems of physical, biological & cultural elements which are interlinked both individually and collectively. Environment is the sum total of conditions in which an organism has to survive or maintain its life process. It influences the growth & development of living forms.
  • According to P. Gisbert “Environment is anything immediately surrounding an object and exerting a direct influence on it.”
  • According to E. J. Ross “Environment is an external force which influences us.”
  • Thus, environment refers to anything that is immediately surrounding an object and exerting a direct influence on it. Our environment refers to those thing or agencies which though distinct from us, affect our life or activity. The environment by which man is surrounded and affected by factors which may be natural, artificial, social, biological and psychological.

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Components of Environment

  • Environment mainly consists of atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. But it can be roughly divided into two types such;
    • Micro environment refers to the immediate local surrounding of the organism.
    • Macro environment refers to all the physical and biotic conditions that surround the organism externally.
    • Physical environment refers to all abiotic factors or conditions like temperature, light, rainfall, soil, minerals etc. It comprises of atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
    • Biotic environment includes all biotic factors or living forms like plants, animals, Micro-organisms.
  • Components or segments of environment are given below:
    • Atmosphere – the sphere of air.
    • Hydrosphere – the sphere of water.
    • Lithosphere – the sphere of soil, rock, etc.
Title: Components of Enviroment
  • Lithosphere is the outermost layer of earth called crust, which is made of different minerals. Its depth can reach up to 100 kilometers and is found on both land (terrestrial crust) and oceans (oceanic crust) . The main component of lithosphere is earth՚s tectonic plates.
  • Hydrosphere comprises of all forms of water bodies on earth including oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams etc. It covers 70 % of earth՚s surface. 97.5 % of water found on Earth is in the oceans in the form of salt water. Only 2.5 % of water on Earth is freshwater. Out of this, 30.8 % is available as groundwater and 68.9 % is in frozen forms as in glaciers. Amount of 0.3 % is available in rivers, reservoirs and lakes and is easily accessible to man.
  • Atmosphere is gaseous layer enveloping the Earth. The atmosphere with oxygen in abundance is unique to Earth and sustains life. It mainly comprises 78.08 % nitrogen, 20.95 % oxygen, 0.93 % argon, 0.038 % carbon dioxide, and traces of hydrogen, helium, and noble gases. The amount of water vapor present is variable.
  • Biosphere refers to all the regions on Earth where life exists. The ecosystems that support life could be in soil, air, water or land. The term Biosphere was coined by Geologist Edward Seuss who used this term for place on Earth where life can be found. Biosphere refers to the sum total of all living matter, the biomass or biota. It extends from the polar ice caps to the equator, with each region harboring some life form suitable to the conditions there.

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