# Method of Logical Reasoning for Paper 1 Unit VI (Logical Reasoning) as Per New 2021 Syllabus

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## Importance of Logical Reasoning

- Logic Is A Universal Part Of The Human Experience — Agriculture Would Be Impossible Without Inductive Reasoning About Weather And Sunlight, And Construction Would Be Impossible Without Mathematics And Deductive Reasoning About What Makes A Structure Sturdy.
- Formalized Logic Has Appeared In Several Places With More Or Less Similar Results. The Greek Philosopher Aristotle Is Credited With Being The First To Develop A Formal System Of Logical Reasoning, But There Were Already People In India And China Working On Formal Logic Long Before Aristotle Was Born. The Indian, Chinese, And Greek Systems Were All Remarkably Similar In Their Rules, Which Suggests That There May Have Been Some Mutual Influence Despite The Distance. Traders And Travelling Scholars May Have Brought Ideas About Logical Reasoning With Them All Over The World, Allowing For Rapid Development Of New Ideas.
- Logic May Seem Like A Stuffy, Abstract Discipline Used Only By Philosophers And Lawyers, But It Has Had A Profound Influence On The History Of Science And Technology As Well. Alan Turing, The Inventor Of The Modern Computer, Was A Logician Rather Than A Tinkerer Or Engineer, And His Famous “Turing Machine” Was A Product Of His Rigorous Training In Formal Logical Reasoning.
- Formal and Informal Logic Reasoning
- Next To These 3 Types Of Logical Reasoning It Is Also Possible To Make A Difference Between Formal Reasoning And Informal Reasoning. Formal Reasoning Is A Type Of Logical Reasoning Based On Valid Premises And Therefore Valid Conclusions, Thus It Is A Form Of Deductive Reasoning. It Provides No New Information, But Only Rearranges Known Information to A New Conclusion.
- Next To Formal Reasoning We Also Have Informal Reasoning. This Form Of Logical Reasoning Possesses All The Elements Of Formal Reasoning, Like The Deduction Part, However It Also Includes Probabilities And Truths About Premises And Conclusions. It Can Be Said That Informal Reasoning Is Related To Abductive Reasoning, One Of The Other Three Types Of Logical Reasoning Explained Above

- Combining These Two Forms Of Logical Reasoning Together With The Three Different Types Results In The Following Distinguish In Logical Reasoning:
- Deductive
- Formal Deductive Reasoning
- Informal Deductive Reasoning
- Inductive
- Formal Inductive Reasoning
- Informal Inductive Reasoning
- Abductive
- Formal Abductive Reasoning
- Informal Abductive Reasoning

## Analogies: Concepts & Basics

- Analogy means ‘correspondence’ or ‘similar items’ . In other words, we can say the similarity or similar relation existence between the given subjects.
- Analogy based test are meant to test a candidates overall knowledge, power of verbal reasoning & ability to think concisely & accurately. There are three type of analogy:
- Number based
- Latter based
- Word based

- Number analogy: The candidates are asked to identify & point out relationships, similarities or differences, & dissimilarities in a series or between groups of numbers.
- In most of the cases relationships between the numbers in a given pair can be any of the following:
- One number is a multiple of other.
- One number is the square or square root of the other.
- One number is the cube or cube root of other.
- The two numbers can be consecutive, even, odd or prime numbers.

- In most of the cases relationships between the numbers in a given pair can be any of the following:
- Latter analogy: The questions based on latter analogy are similar to number analogy. Here, the question are based on the relationship between two groups of letters on each side of the sign.
- Normally, three pairs of letters given followed by a question mark where the fourth pair of letters is supposed to come.

- Word analogy: In word analogy questions there is a certain between the two given words on one side of ‘::’ and one word is given on the other side.
- Students are asked to find the correct alternative that has same relationship with that word.
- There are many possibilities in establishing a relationship. Here are some useful points on the basic knowledge required for the tests.
- Tool & action
- Worker & workers place
- Worker & product
- Quantity & unit
- Instrument & management
- Study & topic
- Word & antonym
- Person & field
- Book & author

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