Terminology in Psychology NTA (UGC)-NET Part 2
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Counseling psychologist: A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances.
Critical thinking : An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.
Declarative memory: That part of long-term memory containing specific factual information.
Dependent variable: In an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.
Determinism: The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one’s choices and actions if all such causes were known.
Developmental psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death.
Difference threshold: The minimum difference between two stimuli that is detectable to an observer.
Discovery learning: Learning based on insight and understanding.
Discrimination: Perception of and response to differences in stimuli
Discriminative stimuli: Stimuli that precede rewarded and nonrewarded responses in operant conditioning.
Divergent thinking: Thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives; a major element in original or creative thought.
Drives: Internal states that arise in response to disequilibrium in an animal’s physiological needs.
Echoic Memory: Sensory memory that allows auditory information to be stored for brief durations
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) : The use of electroconvulsive shock as an effective treatment for severe depression
Electroencephalograph (EEC): A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.
Emotion: A state characterized by physiological arousal, changes in facial expression, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings.
Emotional intelligence: The ability to perceive use, understand, and manage emotions.
Encoding: Converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory.
Endocrine System: The network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Episodic Memories: Long‑term memories for autobiographical events and the contexts in which they occurred
Evolutionary psychology: Study of the evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns.
Expectancy: An anticipation concerning future events or relationships.
Experiential processing: Thought that is passive, effortless, and automatic.
Experiment: Procedure used to test the effects of a treatment.
Experimental Group: Group that receives treatment during an experiment
Experimental method: Investigating causes of behavior through controlled experimentation.
Extinction: The weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement.
Feedback: Information on the results of one’s efforts
Five-factor model: Proposes that there are five universal dimensions of personality.
Fixation : A state in which a person remains attached to objects or activities more appropriate for an earlier stage of psychosexual development.
Flashbulb memory: Memory created at times of high emotion that seems especially vivid.
Free Association: The therapeutic method in which a patient gives a running account of thoughts, wishes, physical sensations, and mental images as they occur
Frequency theory: Holds that tones up to 4,000 hertz are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each.
Frustration-aggression hypothesis: States that frustration tends to lead to aggression.
Functional Fixedness: Block to solving problems caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects or ideas.
Genes: Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information.
Gestalt psychology: A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.
Gestalt Therapy : Therapy that focuses on ways to unite mind and body to make a person whole
Giftedness: Either the possession of a high IQ or special talents or aptitudes.
Groupthink: A compulsion by members of decision-making groups to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking.
Growth needs: In Maslow’s hierarchy, the higher-level needs associated with self – actualization.
Hallucination: An imaginary sensation—such as seeing, hearing, or smelling something that does not exist in the external world.
Health psychology: Study of the ways in which cognitive and behavioral principles can be used to prevent illness and promote health.
Heredity: The biological transmission of traits from parents to offspring
Hippocampus: A part of the limbic associated with storing memories.
Homeostasis: A steady state of body equilibrium.
Hormone: A glandular secretion that affects bodily functions or behavior.