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NTA (UGC) NET June-December 2021 Syllabus for Anthropology

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NTA (UGC) NET Anthropology Syllabus 2012

Code No. 07

Subject: Anthropology


  • There will be two question papers, NTA (UGC) NET Anthropology Paper II and Paper III.
  • Paper II will consist of 50 questions worth 2 mark each.
  • Paper III will consist of 75 questions worth 2 mark each.

NTA (UGC) NET Anthropology PAPER II


  • Aim, Scope, Historical Development, Relationship with other sciences, Different branches of anthropology and their interrelatedness.
  • Recent and Emerging trends and major developments in all branches of Anthropology (Physical, Archaeological and Social-Cultural) .
  • Fieldwork, Ethnography, Comparative method, Observation, Interview, Case study, Genealogical method, Schedules and questionnaires, Statistical tools of Archaeological sites and Data collection.


  • Theories of Evolution: Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, Synthetic theory, Primates and Fossils: Fossil records, Earliest Primates (Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, Dryopithecus, Proconsul) , and living primates (Distribution, Classification, Characteristics, Phylogeny and Taxonomy) .
  • Comparison of morphological and anatomical features of Man and Ape Erect Posture and Bipedalism.


  • Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of early Hominoids Ramapithecus; Australopithecus Africanus; Australopithecus boisei (zinjanthropus) ; Australopithecus robustus; Meganthropus; Homo habilis; Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of Homo erectus; Homo erectus javanensis; Homo erectus pekinensis; Homo sapiens neanderthalenis Phyiogenetic position, salient features and distribution.
  • La Chapelle auxsaints; Rhodesian Man Classic or Conservative.
  • Progressive-Steinheim; Ehringsdorf; Mount Carmel Evidence, distribution and characteristics of Homo sapiens.
  • Cro-Magnon; Grimaldi; Predmost; Combe cappelle; Brunn; Chancelade; Offnet.

Human Genetics:

  • History and Development; Scope and Branches; Call structure and Division; Mendel՚s Laws; Patterns of Inheritance-Autosomal Dominant; Autosomal Recessive; Codominance; Sex linked; sex limited and sex controlled; Multiple alleles.
  • Linkage and Crossing-over Lethal genes.
  • Methods of Studying Inheritance-Twins; Sib-pair; Pedigree.
  • Role of Heredity and Environment-Stature; Skin Colour; Intelligence.
  • Genetics of Blood Groups.
  • ABO System-Two-factor Hypothesis; Multiple Alleles; Rh System Living Human Populations and Human Diversity Concept of Race.
  • Criteria for Racial Classifications.
  • Skin, Hair and Eye colour; Stature; Eyes, Lips and Ears; Face and Lower Jaw; Blood Groups; Dermatoglyphics.
  • Distribution and Characteristics-Caucasoid; Negroid; Mongoloid.
  • Racial Classifications-Deniker՚s; Hooton՚s; Coon, Garn and BirdselTs.
  • Racial Classification of Indian Populations-Risley՚s; Guha՚s; Sarkar՚s.


  • Relative, Absolute and Cultural Geological framework.
  • Tertiary, Quaternary-Pleistocene, Holocene.
  • Major Climatic changes during pleistocene.
  • Glacial and Interglacial periods.
  • Causes of Ice Ages.
  • Pluvial and Interpluvial Periods.
  • Moraines, River Terraces, Loess, Sea-level Changes-Caves, Marine teasaces, Beach, ridges.
  • Relative dating: Terrace, Stratigraphy, Palaenology, Palaecutology.
  • Absolute dating: Radio-carbon, Potassium-argon, Thermoluminescence, Dendrochronology.
  • Cultural Chronology-Three-age system: Stone Age, Copper/Bronze Age, Iron Age.
  • Palaeolithic Period: Lower palaeolithic, Middle palaeolithic, Upper palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithie-Emergence of Metal Technology, Urban revolution.

Typo-technology and Palaeolithic Cultural Features:

  • Percussion technique: Primary and Secondary making.
  • Block-on-block/anvil technique; Stone hammer technique; Cylinder hammer technique; Clactonian technique; Levallois technique; Pressure technique; Retouch; Blade and Burin technique; Flake technique; Pecking; Grinding and Polishing; Splinter and groove techniques.

Artefact Typology:

  • Simple flake; Side flake; End flake; Levallois flake; Clactonian flake; Blade; Microlithic blade; Tortoise core/Levalloisiam; Discoid core; Mousterian flake; Prismatic core.
  • Tool Typology-Pebble tools; Chopper; Chopping tool Bifaces-Handaxe; Cleaver Scrapers-side, end, round, concave, convex Blade knife; Blunted back blade; Borer/Awl; Burin Points leaf shape-Laurel Leaf; Willow Leaf Points-Shouldered Points-Denticulate; Notch Microliths.
  • Geometric Types
  • Non-Geometric Types
  • Celt-Axe; Adze
  • Shouldered Celt. Shoe-last Celt Grinding Stone Ringstone.
  • Lower Palaeolithic Cultures-Type-technology, Habitat, Environment Economy, People and Distribution.
  • Lower Palaeolithic Cultures
  • Pebble Tool Culture
  • Oldowan; Sohan; Choukoutien
  • Acheulian Cultures
  • Acheulian Cultures of Africa; Acheulian Cultures of Europe; Acheulian Cultures of India.
  • Middle Palaeolithic Cultures
  • Mousterian Culture/Middle Palaeolithic Europe-Habitat, Environment Economy, Social Organisation, Religion, Typo-technology.
  • Middle Stone Age in Africa Middle Palaeolithic in India.
  • Upper Palaeolithic Culture-Habitat, Environment Economy, Typo-technology, Social Institution, religion Europe-Perigordian Culture.
  • Chattelperronean; Gravettian; Aurignacian Culture; Solutrean.
  • Culture; Magdalenian Culture.
  • Upper Palaeolithic in India Upper Palaeolithic Art.

Holocene Culture:

  • Mesolithic Cultures: Climate changes, Typo technology, Habitat, Economic activity, Socio-religious features. Europe-Azilian Culture; Tardenoisian Culture; Maglemosian Culture; Kitchen Midden Culture; Natufian Culture.
  • Indian Mesolithic: Langhnaj; Teri Sites; Birbhanpur; Bagor; Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, Sarainahar Rai, Lekhahlia, Mahadeva.
  • Mesolithic Art in India
  • Neolithic (Early Farming Cultures)
  • Neolithic of the Near-east
  • Jericho; Jarmo; Catal Huyuk
  • Neolithic Cultures of Indian Subcontinent:
  • Northern Neolithic: Burzahom
  • Southern Neolithic: Brahmagiri; Sangankallu; Utnur; Telkalakota; Nagarjun Konda.
  • Eastern Neolithic: Daojali Hading; Sarutaru.
  • Central Zone (Neo-Chalcolithic) : Navdatoli; Nevasa; Inamgaon.
  • Indus Civilization: Extant; Characteristics; Chronology; Origin and decline, Continuity with post-Harappan, Indus people and society.
  • Iron Age: Megalithic Types-Menhir; Dolmeh/Topikal; Cist; Cairn Circle; Carcophagi.

Evolution, Social Structure and Organisation:

  • Evolution: Unilinear, Universal, Multilinear Diffusion; Neo-evolution; Innovation; Acculturation; Transculturation Culture: Definitions and Attributes Functionalism: Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown Structuralism: Levi-Strauss, Leach.
  • Culture and Personality: Basic personality configuration-Kardiner and Linton Enculturation; Status and Role; Patterns of Culture; Culture Change; Themes Cultural Relativism; Values; Great and Little Tradition; Civilization; Gender Theories.
  • Indian Contribution-Theory and Concepts: G. S. Ghurye; N. K. Bose; D. N. Majumdar; M. N. Srinivas; S. C. Dube L. P. Vidyarthi Aspects of Culture, Organisation of Culture, Institutions Social Organisation.


  • Family of Orientation and Procreation Structure: Nuclear, Extended, Joint.
  • Residence: Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Neolocal, Virilocal, Uxorilocal Marriage.
  • Rules: Endogamy, Exogamy, Monogamy, Polygamy: Polygyny, Polyandry.
  • Mate selection: Cross-cousin marriage, Levirate, Sororate, Sororal Dowry, Bride price/Bride wealth Kinship.
  • Kinship Terms: Classificatory and Descriptive systems Consanguineal and Affinal, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Terms of Reference and Address Descent, Inheritance and Succession: Patriarchal and matriarchal Unilineal: Patrilineal, Double Groups: Tribe, Clan, Phratry, Lineage Kinship behaviour and relationship; Avoidance and Joking relationship, Incest.
  • Economic and Political Organisation: Religion and Magic

Economic Organisation:

  • Concept of Property
  • Primitive Communism.
  • States of Economy: Collection, Hunting, Fishing, Pastoralism, Cultivation, Shifting and Settled.
  • Subsistence Economy and Market Economy.
  • Barter
  • Means of Production
  • Division of Labour

Political Organisation:

  • Panchayat-traditional and statutory.
  • Leadership-clan and tribe.
  • Kingship and Chiefdom in tribal communities.
  • Customary Law
  • Judicial System
  • Crime and Punishment in Primitive Society.

Religion and Magic:

  • Primitive Religion: Animism, Totemism, Ancestor Propitiation, Shaman, Priest, Medicine Man.
  • Tribal Mythology: Origin of universe, Tribe and Clan, Tribal deities.
  • Magic: Black, White, Preventive, Defensive, Destructive, Imitative, Sympathetic, Witchcraft, Sorcery.
  • Symbolism and Rituals.
  • Supernatural powers-Mana, Taboo.

Indian Anthropology: Basic Concepts

  • Indian Village as part society, as an isolate.
  • Caste as a group and system.
  • Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe.
  • Tribe, Caste, Varna and Caste/Jati.
  • Notified and Denotified Groups.
  • Other Backward classes and castes: Sanskritisation, Westernisation, Modernisation Sacred complex in India Regionalism and Ethnicity.

Indian Anthropology: Basic Issues

  • New Panchayati Raj
  • Gram Sabha
  • Women in new Panchayats.
  • Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Casts Major tribal groups Tribal states in India.
  • Tribal Movements for Autonomy, Development Schemes Tribal Rehabilitation; Democracy and Caste Bonded Labour and Child Labour; Ashram Schools; Mandal Commission; Dhebar Commission; Emerging Spiritual Leaders (Gurus) in India; Caste among non-Hindus.

Paper-III: (Part a and B)


  • Theories of Evolution: Physical and Social Cultural Processes and Principles of Evolution-Convergence, Divergence Parallelism, Adaptive Radiation, Speciation, Irreversibility. Theories of Evolution-Lamarckism and Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism, Synthetic theory, National Selection in Man. Evolution and Diffusion of Culture, Theories of Socio-cultural Evolution-Unilinear, Universal, Multilinear, Neo-evolution. Bipedalism versus Tool making, Biface Technology and big game Hunting, Development of Language. Human Colonization during late Pleistocene, Emergence of early farming and village communities, Process of urbanisation. Methodological tools and techniques in Physical, Archaeological and Social-cultural Anthropology.


  • Distribution: Characteristics, Classification, Position of Man in animal Kingdom-Primate evolution with reference to Skull, Jaw, Limbs, Dentition and. Brain. Earliest primates of Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene, Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, Dryopithecus and Proconsul. Living primates-Distribution, characteristics and classification, Phylogeny and taxonomy, Prosimii, Cebodea, Cercopithecoidea, Hominoidea. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Man, Gorilla, Chimpanzee, Orangutan and Gibbon Erect posture and bipedalism.
  • Origin of Man: Theories of Monogenesis, Polygenesis, Hologenesis and Dispersion. Primate Behaviour, Evolution of Behaviour, Patterns of Social Behaviour, Reproductive Behaviour Early Hominoids, Process of Hominisation and Emergence of Hominoids: Ramapithecus, Australopithecus Africanus, A Boisei (zinjanthropus) , A Robustus, Meganthropus; Homo habilis-Classification and Controversy.
  • Homo erectus: Homo erectus javanesis, H. e. Pekinesis, Pithecanthropoids of Africa and Europe. Homo sapien Neanderthalensis-Phyiogenetic position, Salient features, Distribution of La Chappie-Auxsaint, Rhodesian Man, La Ferrasie, Swanscombe, Fontechevade, Krapina, Steinheim, Ehringsdorf, Mount Carmel and Shanidar, Emergence and characteristics of Modern man-Brunn; Chancelade; Cro-Magnon; Grimaldi; Offnet; Predmost.


  • History and Development: Concept, Scope and Emerging trends-Relation to other sciences and medicine. Principles of human genetics and molecular genetics Mendel՚s Laws of inheritance and its application, Modes of inheritance-Autosomal (dominant, recessive, co-dominance) , Sex-linked, Sex-influenced, Sex-limited, Lethal genes, modifying genes, suppressor genes Polygenic, Variable ponetrance and expressivity, Linkage and crossing-over:
  • Mutation: Gene mutation-Spontaneous, Induced, Mutation rate, Genetic hazards of radiation, Chemical mutagenesis, Methods of studying heredity-Twin and co-twin control methods, Pedigree; Sib-pair; Hereditability estimate Population Genetics.
  • Hardy-Weinberg law: Definition and application.
  • Genetic polymorphism: Concept, balanced and transient.
  • Breeding Population: Mating patterns, random mating, assortative mating, consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient, genetic load, genetic isolates.
  • Selection: Heterozygous, intra-uterine, fitness, differential, fertility, relaxation.
  • Genetic Marker: ABO blood groups, Genetics and Distribution in India MNSs blood groups; Rh blood group system, Nomenclature, Fisher՚s crossing-over idea, Cis-and trans-position, natural and incomplete antibodies, Kell and Duffy system-Inheritance, Secretor factor and Lewis antigens-Interaction, Dennatoglyphics-History, Identification, Topography, Fingerprints Pattern-Identifications, Inheritance, Pattern intensity, Furuhata and Dankmeijer՚s index.
  • Palmar Dermatoglyphics: Configurational areas, Main-line formula and index, Transversality, Inheritance, Mid-phalangeal patterns-Identification and types, Palmar flexion creases and main types, Sole Prints-Configurational areas, Main-lines formula and index, Transversality, Inheritance, Toe prints-Pattern, Identification, Inheritance Dermatoglyphics and Personal Identification Dennatoglyphics and Diseases (Chromosomal and others) Dermatoglyphics and Paternity disputes Population variation-Qualitative and quantitative Human Growth-Development and Adaptation.
  • Human Growth: Definition, Concepts, Differentiation, Maturation and Development.
  • Phases of Growth: Prenatal, Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence, Maturity, Senescence.
  • Factors affecting growth: Genetic, Environmental, Hormonal, Nutritional, Socio-economic, Secular trends, Gerontology, Methods of studying human growth and development-Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Mixed longitudinal, Growth curves, Epiphyseal union. Dentition, Analysis of human physique and body composition-Sheldon, Parnoll Health-Carter, Human Adpatation to heat, cold, altitude and nutrition, Nutritional Requirements-Infancy to old age. Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Minerals, Vitamins, Under-nutrition, obesity, Malnutrition, Physiological Factors in Growth-Haematological, Blood pressure. Heart, rate, Pulse rate.


  • Red Cell Enzymes, Genetic variation and Polymorphism-Red cell acid phosphate. G6PD, Phosphoglucomutase, Adenylate kinase, Adenosine deaminase and Lactate dehydrogenase.
  • Plasma Proteins: Heredity and Genetic variation of Haptoglobins, Transferring, Immunoglobuline, Haemoglobin. ā€œNormal and Variantā€
  • Normal Haemoglobin: HbA and HbF, HbA2 Abnormal Haemoglobin: HbS, HbC, HbD, HbE Thalassemia, HbS and Malaria-Balanced polymorphism, Cretinism and GePD deficiency Techniques for Biochemical Analysis Electrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis, Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Biochemical Pathways (one gene one enzyme hypothesis) and Heredity of Phenylketonurea, Alkaptonurea, Galactosemia, Albinism, Histocompatibility antigen (HLA) -History, Subtyping, Inheritance, Genetic interaction linkages, Polymorphism, HLA and diseases
  • Blood groups and diseases: Erythroblastosis fetalis, Smallpox and Malaria.
  • Gene mapping: Blood groups, HLA, Sex-linked characters Human Cytogenetics, Identification of human chromosomes, Karyotyping and Nomenclature, Techniques for studying Chromosomal Structure and Polymorphism, Autoradiography, Banding, Flprence, Chromosomal. Aberrations
  • Numerical: Turner՚s syndrome, Klinefelter՚s syndrome, Tripio-X, Triploial-X, Tetra-X, Down՚s syndrome, Pateu՚s syndrome, Edward՚s syndrome, Sturge-Weber՚s syndrome, Triploidy and Tetraploidy, Structural-Cri-du-chat syndrome and Philadelphia chromosome, Translocations-D/D, D/G, G/G, Acrocentric/Non-Acrocentric; Metacentric/Metacentric ring chromosome, Ieroctrbmosome mivession, mosaccism, Sexual differentiation-Genetic and post-genetic, Application-Genetic counselling, Genetic screen and Genetic engineering and DNA fingerprinting.


  • Environmental Archaeology: Cultural Ecology, Ethno-archaeology, Settlement Archaeology, New Archaeology, Action Archaeology, Social and Economic approach in Archaeological Studies, Nature of environmental changes-Climatic, Geomorphic, Faunal and Floral, Nature of evidence for reconstruction of palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment, Geomorphological, Sedimentologlcal, Pedological, Palaeontological, Palaeobotanical Methods of dating, Stratigraphic; Paleomagnetic; Fluorine; Radiocarbon; Potassium-Argon; Fission Track; Thermoluminescence; Obsidian Hydration; Archaeomagnetism; Magnetic Reversal; Tree Ring; Varve Clay; Racemization.


  • Earliest Cultures (Primitive Hunter-Gatherers) : Bipedalism versus tool making-Evidence from Hadar, Laetoli, Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Forz, Importance of (the African Rift valley) Olduvai Gorge Australopithecines and tools, Spread of hominids outside East Africa; Early Man and his culture along the northern Mediterranean, Palestine, South Asia, Java, China and India. Hunting techniques and cooperation; Beginning of the use of fire and its impact in biological and cultural evolution, Development of home base and migration-implication in band formation.
  • Emergence of Biface Technology: Homo erectus-Biface technology and big game hunting Development of cooperation and possibly language Further expansion of human habitat Geographical extent of biface cultures, Acheulian culture in South Western Europe-Terra Amata, Torralba Ambrona, Pech-lu-Aze Lazaret, Acheulian culture in Africa-Olduvai Gorge, Isimila, Kalambo Falls, Olorgesaillie, Acheulian culture in India-Madrasian (Kortalayar Valley) , Didwana, Belan Valley, Bhimbetka, Narmada Valley, Nevasa-Chirki Hunsgi, Krishna Valley, Sohan Valley Significance of Hathnora (Narmada Valley) , Evidence of Homo Fauna associated with Acheulian tools in Peninsular India.
  • Flake Tool Complex: Middle Palaeolithic characteristic features and distribution in Europe Technological/economic implications of Evolution of flake tools, Middle Palaeolithic Cultures in North Africa, Western Europe, Central Europe, Near and Middle East, Central Asia-Tabun Tashik Task Shanidar, First human burials and emergence of rituals, Middle Palaeolithic culture in India-Bellan Valley, Bhimbetka, Nevasa and Narmada, Eastern Peninsula, Typology and Technology of Middle Palaeolithic tools in India Human expansion in Temperate regions.
  • Blade Tool Complex: Advanced Hunter-Gatherers (Upper Palaeolithic Cultures) Evolution of blade and burin technology Use of bone and antler as raw materials Upper Palaeolithic cultures and Homo sapiens, Upper Palaeolithic cultures of Western and Central Europe and North Africa-Dabban, Chatelperronian, Perigordian, Aurigacian, Gravettian, Solutrean, Magdalenian, Pavlovian, Szeletian, Emergence and development of art-Painting, Engraving, Sculpture, Motivation, Upper Palaeolithic habitations and economy-cave and open-air settlements, reindeer and mammoth hunting, Populating the New World, Upper Palaeolithic in India-Reningunta, Billa Surgam, Patne, Bhimbetka, Son and Bellan Valleys, Visadi, Pushkar, Gunjan Valley.


  • Final Hunter: Gatherer and Incipient Cultivators (Mesolithic Cultures) Post-Pleistocene environmental changes, Development of microlithic technology, composite tools and bow-arrow, Important Mesolithic cultures and sites of Europe and the Near-east-Azilian, Tardenoisian, Maglemosian, Ertebolle, Natufian and Epi-Palaeolithic.
  • Mesolithic cultures of India: Western India-Bagor, Tilwara, Pushkar lake, Lankhnaj, Bombay Coast, Central India-Adamgarh, Bhimbetka, Baghaikhor, Chopani Mando, Ganga Valley-Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaba, Eastern India-Birbhanpur, South India-Eastern Ghats and East Coast Mesolithic economy and society Mesolithic art, Beginnings of agriculture, evidences from Mount Carmel Caves, Juricho, Beidha Karim Shahir, Mehergarh, Hoabinbian of South East Asia, North East India.
  • Emergence of Village Farming way of Life (Neolithic Revolution) : Economic and Social consequences of food production-settled life, population growth, craft specialisation, class formation, political institutions, Ecological perspective of early agriculture-Nuclear zones of the Near-east, South East Asia, North East India, Important early farming centres and sites in the old world (excluding India) -Jericho, Catal Huyuk, Jarmo, Beidha, Khirokitia, Zawi Chemi, Shanidar, Early cultivation in New Guinea, Root crops and rice cultivation in South East Asia, Beginning of agriculture in India-Ganga Valley, Mehergarh, Koldihwa.
  • Diffusion of Village Farming: Way of Life in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent, Pakistan-Kim Ghul Mohammad, Rana Ghundai, Gumlam Sarai Khola, Kashmir Valley-Burzahom, Gufkral, Rajasthan-Ahar, Gilund (Ahar Culture) , Central India-Nagada, Kayatha, Navdatoli, Eran (Kayatha, Ahar and Malwa Cultures) , Northern Deccan-Nevasa, Chandoli, Diamabad Inamgaon, Prakash, Bahal (Malwa and Jorwer Centres) , South India-Maski, Brahmagiri, Sangankallu, Tekkalkota, Piklihal Utnur, Halbur, Palavoy, Paiyampalli, T-Narsipur, Ashmounds, Nagarjunakonda (Neolithic Culture) , Neolithic Cultures of Eastern and North Eastern India-Daojali Hading, Kuchai, tool types, distribution and affinities with S. E. Asia.
  • Birth of Civilization (Bronze Age) : Rise of civilization in Mesopotamia-Evidences from Ubaid, Malaf, Jamdet Nasr, Early dynasties.
  • Indus Civilization: Expansion of village communities in the Indus and Gagra/Hakra Valleys-Amri, Kot Diji, Jalilpur, Kalibangan, Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Mature Indus Culture-Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Chanhundaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotada, Town planning, Architecture, Metal technology, Art, Writing, Late Harappan Culture-Expansion into Kutch, Gujarat, Punjab. Haryana, Western UP, Rojadi, Rangpur, Ropar, Mitathal and Alamgirpur, Decline of the Indus Civilization-Theories, Environmental decay, Hydrological changes, Tectonic movement, Climatic changes, External invasion, Aftermath of the Indus Civilization-OCP Copper. Hoards.
  • Biginning of Iron Age and Second Urbanization: Economic and Social implication of Iron technology, Black and Red ware culture-Noh, Attranji, Khera, Ahichichatra, Painted Grey Ware (PGW) Culture-Distribution, Economy and Society, Norther Black Polished (NBP) ware culture-first cities in the Ganga Valley and emergence of the Mauryan Empire, Role of Ecology in the urbanization of the Ganga Valley, Iron and Megalithic burials, Megalithic types-Southern Indian Inhabitation, Economy, Megalithic ritual, Living Megalithic cultures of Eastern and Central India.


  • The Meaning and Nature of Culture:
  • Humanistic and anthropological perspectives, distinguished, attributes of anthropological concept of culture:
    1. Learned and historically derived
    2. Plurality
    3. Relativity
    4. Behaviourally manifested
    5. Functional integration and holistic perspective
    6. Dynamic changing
    7. Language as vehicle of culture The contribution of E B Tylor; A L Kroeber; B Malinowski
  • Emerging areas:
    1. Medical Anthropology
    2. Ecological Anthropology
    3. Urban anthropology
  • Development Anthropology:
    1. Evolution and Diffusion of Culture
    2. Theories of socio-cultural evolution
    3. Unilinear (Morgan)
    4. Universal (White and Child)
    5. Multilinear (Julian Steward)
    6. Contribution of British, German and American diffusionists.
    7. Contemporary trends in evolutionary studies: Neo-evolution, Acculturation, Diffusion, culture contact and social-cultural change, Invention, Innovation Technology and culture change, especially affecting women.
  • Functionalism:
    1. Form, function, meaning and distinguishing tenets of Functionalism in Social-cultural anthropology:
    2. Malinowski՚s and Radcliffe-Brown contribution
    3. Structuralism
    4. Social structure, social organisation and social system
    5. Levi-Strauss
    6. Leach
    7. Structuralism in Social Anthropology
  • Psychological Anthropology:
  • Culture and personality-Benedict and Mead, Basic personality Linton, Kardiner, Cora Du Bois Anthropological approaches in national character studies Family, Marriage and Kinship, Typology and functions of family Nuclear, extended and joint family, Preferential marriage, functions of descent groups, lineage and clan Kinship terrninology and Kinship behaviour.


  • Contribution to social-cultural anthropology by:
    1. E B Tylor
    2. Lewis Morgan
    3. Franz Boas
    4. A L Kroeber
    5. B Malinowski
    6. A R Radcliffe-Brown
    7. Evans-Prichard
    8. C Levi-Strauss
    9. Ralph Linton
    10. Robert Redfield
    11. Margaret Mead
  • Methodology of Anthropological Research: Ethnography as a method.
  • Fieldwork tradition in anthropology: Basic characteristics of field work method.
  • Quantitative and qualitative tools and techniques: Survey, Observation, Case study, Interview, Schedule, Questionnaire, Genealogy, Group discussion, Mapping.
  • Comparative methods in social-cultural anthropology:
  • Cross-cultural comparison
  • Controlled comparison
  • Reinterpretation, Restudy, Evaluation research Participatry Rural Appraisal (PRA) Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) , Intervention Research, Process and Impact Analysis.


  • Weaker sections in Indian population: Scheduled Castes (SC) , Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Primitive Tribal Groups (PTG) , Denotified communities, Basic of labelling as ST and SC according to Constitution.
  • Tribal problems and Welfare measures relating to:
    1. Forests
    2. Shifting cultivation
    3. Land Alienation
    4. Housing
    5. Health and Sanitation/Nutrition
    6. Indebtedness
    7. Bonded Labour
    8. Education
    9. Gender Issues
  • Development Strategies (Plan/Sub-plans) :
    1. Special Programmes
    2. Large-Scale Agricultural Multipurpose Societies (LAMPS)
    3. Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP)
    4. Community Development Project (CDP)
    5. Integrated Rural Development Project (IRDP)
    6. Component Plan for SC
    7. Tribal Youth Self-Employment Scheme (TRYSEM)
    8. Reservation for women in Panchayati Raj.
    9. Role of voluntary organisations in development Tribal problems of identity, autonomy ethicity.
    10. Tribal movements: Revivalistic/Nativistic population displacement due to. Development schemes such as dam construction, Revitalisation of local history, problems of pseudo-Tribals to become ST.
  • Indian Society and Culture:
    1. Caste as a group and as a system of social segmentation and integration.
    2. Caste in modern India, Changing dimensions of caste.
    3. Village studies in India: Primitive society as a conceptual model of village ethnography.
    4. Concepts: Little and Great tradition, universalisation and parochia-lisation, dominant caste, Sanskritisation and Westernisation, sacred complex, Role of city in change. Folk-urban and tribe-caste continuum.
  • Indian Masters:
    1. G S Ghurye
    2. N K Bose
    3. D N Majumdar
    4. Verrier Elwin
    5. M N Srinivas
    6. S C Dube
    7. L P Vidhyarthi
  • Anthropological approaches in community, Health, Natural health, Promotion and disease control programmes such as population control, Nutrition, Mother and child health, Health Education, Leprosy, TB, AIDS, etc.
  • Anthropology in Education and Communication:
    1. Rural development
    2. Gender perspectives
    3. Relocation, Rehabilitation: Earthquakes, Floods, Disasters Human resource training and management.

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