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NTA (UGC) NET June-December 2019 Syllabus for Archaeology

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NTA (UGC) NET Archaeology Syllabus 2012

Code No. 67

Subject: Archaeology


  • There will be two question papers, NTA (UGC) NET Archaeology Paper II and Paper III.
  • Paper II will consist of 50 questions worth 2 mark each.
  • Paper III will consist of 75 questions worth 2 mark each.

NTA (UGC) NET Archaeology Paper II and Paper III-A Core Group


  • Definition, aim and Scope of Archaeology, History and Growth of Archaeology, History of Indian Archaeology.
  • Relationship of Archaeology with Social and Natural Sciences.
  • Retrieval of Archaeological Data: Techniques of Explorations and Excavations.
  • Aims and Methods of Conservation and preservation of Archaeological remains.
  • Recording and Preparation of Reports.


  • Chronology and Dating: Relative, Stratigraphy, Typology, Absolute, Carbon 14, Potassium Argon, Fission Track, Thermoluminescence, Dendrochronology, Pollen analysis, Varve clay analysis.
  • Others-methods: Flourine test, nitrogen and phosphate analysis, soil analysis.
  • Methods of Objective Interpretations: Ethno-archaeology, Experimental archaeology, Application of new archaeological methods in India.


  • Geological Biological and Cultural Dimension of Man.
  • Quaternary Period: Pleistocene and Holocene, Environment and Climatic Changes.
  • Pleistocene Flora and Fauna, Main Stages of Human Evolution and important fossil records.
  • Appearance of Stone Tools and Development of Technology: Main Techniques and Tools of Stone Age, Methods of study of prehistoric remains.


  • Hunting-Gathering Stage: Palaeolithic in Africa, Europe and South-East Asia, Mesolithic in Europe and West Asia; Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains and important sites of India.
  • Beginning of Food Production: Neolithic Stage in West Asia, Major neolithic cultures and important sites of India.


  • Pre and early Harappan Village Cultures of North and North-Western India.
  • Harappa Culture: Origin, extent, chronology, factors of urbanization, trade, script, religion, art and craft, factors for the decline.
  • Devaluation of Harappa Culture: Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.
  • Chalcolithic village communities of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • Copper using cultures of Gangetic plains.


  • Early occurrence of iron: Chrono-Cultural Features.
  • Main Characteristics of the Cultures: Painted grey ware, Black slipped ware and Megalithic cultures.
  • Northern Black polished ware culture: Extent, chronology, characteristics traits.
  • Important city sites: Raj ghat, Ujjain, Vaisali, Taxila, Mathura, Sravasti, Kaushambi and Sishupalgarh.
  • Important sites of historical period: Sringverapur, Khairadih, Satanikota, Chandraketugarh, Nasik, Arikamedu and Adam.


  • Architecture of Structural Stupas: North and South India.
  • Rock-cut Architecture: Monastries and Shrines.
  • Main styles of temples: Origin and development of temples, Main features and examples of Nagar, Vesara and Dravid styles.
  • Main Styles of Sculptural Art: Mauryan, Sunga, Kushana, Gupta, Satvahana, Chalukya, Pallava and Chola periods.


  • Origin and antiquity of coinage in India. Techniques of manufacturing coins.
  • Important Coins: Punch-marked coins, inscribed and uninscribed caste coins; Principal types of Indo-Greek coinage; Saka and Kushan coinage; Principal types of Gupta Gold coinage; Brief account of pre-Islamic Medieval Indian coinage.


  • Origin and antiquity of writing in India: Origin of Brahmi and Kharasthi scripts, Study of some select inscriptions-Ashokan edicts, Besnagar Garuda pillar inscription; Hathigumpha inscription of Kharvela, Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman, Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta, Aihole pillar inscription of Pulakesin II and Gwalior inscription of Mihira Bhoja.


  • Proposed area of research; aims and objectives; proposed methodology; primary and secondary sources; review of previous researches in the proposed area, and likely contribution of the proposal.

NTA (UGC) NET Archaeology Paper III-B Elective or Optional


  • Geo-Chronology and Stone Age Cultures of India: Sohan Valley; Belan Valley; Son Valley and Kortlayar Valley.
  • Palaeolithic Cultures of India: Sohan and Acheulian traditions; Middle Palaeolithic cultures; Upper Palaeolithic cultures; Habitation tendencies of the Palaeolithic period.
  • Patterns of Mesolithic Cultures of India: Characteristic features of alluvial plains; horse-shoe lake; sand-dune; plateau and rock shelter sites.
  • Neolithic Cultures of India: Early farming communities of Baluchistan and Kashmir, Vindhya-Belan region, Kaimur Foot hills and Ganga plains, Chota Nagpur plateau and the North
  • East, and Pastoral communities of Deccan and South.


  • Pre-Harappan Cultures of India and Border Lands: Salient features.
  • Harappa Culture: Origin, Geographical Distribution and Settlement Patterns, Town Planning and Architecture, Trade-Hinterland and Overseas, Arts and Crafts, Material Equipment, Subsistence Pattern, Socio-Political Organization, Religion and Authorship; important excavated sites, concepts of Sorath and Sindhi Harappans in Gujarat
  • Decline and Survival of Harappa Culture: Causes of de-urbanization, Late Harappa cultures of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.
  • Other Copper using Cultures: Copper Hoards and Ochre Coloured pottery, Ahar, Kayatha, Malwa and Deccan Chalcolithic cultures, Cultures of Gangetic Plains.


  • Historical Urbanization: Northern Black polished Ware Culture, Extent, Chronology, Cultural traits.
  • Important City Sites: Rajghat, Ujjain, Vaishali, Taxila, Mathura, Sravasti, Kaushambi, Sishupalgarh, Satanikota.
  • Growth of urban settlements during Kushan Period: Plan and Expansion of Settlements and growth of trade centres; Main features of material culture.
  • Excavated remains of Gupta and Early Medieval Periods: Nature of settlements and main features of material culture.



  • Structural features of ancient fortified settlements.
  • Origin and evolution of Stupa architecture: Sanchi, Bharhut, Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda.
  • Development of Rock-cut Architecture: Chaityas and Viharas.
  • Origin and evolution of temples; Gupta temples; Chalukyan temples; Pallava rathas and temples; Khajuraho temples; temples of Orissa and Chola temples.


  • Mauryan Capital figures; Early Yaksha Statue; Sunga Sculptures; Kaushana sculptures: Mathura and Gandhara schools; Gupta Sculptures: Sarnath School; Sculptures of Chalukyas; Pallavas; Palas; Chola and Chandellas.


  • Rock-cut Cave Paintings of Ajanta and Bagh.



  • Epigraphy as a source of history, Origin of Indian Scripts: Different theories Study of select Epigraphs: Asokan Edicts; Rock Edicts X, XII, XIII; Lumbini inscriptions of Asoka; Minar Rock Edict of Bairat, Besnagar Garud Pillar inscription; Hathigumpha inscription of Kharvela; Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman; Swat Relic casket inscription; Sarnath Buddha image inscription of the time of Kanishka I.
  • Lucknow Museum Jain image inscription of the time of Huvishka (126 AD); Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta; Aihole pillar inscription of Pulakesin II; Gwalior inscriptions of Mihira Bhoja; Tanjavaur inscription of Rajendra Chola and Sangli Copper plate of Govinda IV (Swarn Varsha).


  • Origin and antiquity of coinage in ancient India. Metal and techniques used for coins.

Main Coin Types:

  • Punch-marked Coins; inscribed and Uninscribed caste coins; Principal types of Indo-Greek Coinage; Coins of Saka, Kushan and Satvahana; Principal types of Gupta Gold coins; Roman coins; and brief account of pre-Islamic Medieval Indian coinage.

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