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NTA (UGC) NET June-December 2021 Syllabus for Human Rights and Duties

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NTA (UGC) NET Human Rights and Duties Syllabus 2012

Code No. 92

Subject: Human Rights and Duties


  • There will be two question papers. NTA (UGC) NET HRD Paper II NTA (UGC) NET HRD Paper III.
  • Paper II will consist of 50 questions worth 2 mark each.
  • Paper III will consist of 75 questions worth 2 mark each.

NTA (UGC) NET HRD Paper II and Paper III (Parts a & B)


  • The Basic Concepts: Individual, Group, State, Civil Society, Liberty, Freedom, Equality, Justice, Violence, Counter Violence.
  • Human Values: Humanity, Compassion, Virtues.
  • Indian Concepts: Raj Neeti, Lok Neeti, Danda Neeti, Nyaya, Dharma.
  • Liberal Perspective: Locke, Rousseau, Thdmas Paine, J. S. Mill, A. V Dicey.
  • Marxian Perspective: Marx, Gramsci, Rosa Luxemberg.
  • Critical Theory: Horbeumors.
  • Feminist Perspective: Gender specificity, Patriarchy, Private and Public independent and inter-dependent individual.
  • Gandhian Perspective (Ruskin, Thoreau, Tolstoy) : State, Power, Swaraj, Rights and Duties.
  • Dalit Perspective: Phule, Narayna Guru, Ambedkar. Amartya Sen: Development as Freedom.


  • Natural Rights and Human Duties: Origins and Evolution
  • Civil and Political Rights-Individual vis-a-vis Society and State, the contribution of Magna Carta, American Bill of Rights, the French Revolution and its Goals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity Marxist Revolutions, Anti-colonial Movements, Non-violent-Freedom Movement in India.
  • Constitutional Enshrinement of the Human Rights of Citizens in the Western Countries and Entailing Duties.
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) -International Standards Setting.
  • Impact of the UDHR on the Constitutions of the ‘New’ States.
  • Elaboration of Human Rights: International Human Rights Conventions-Debate and Emphasis on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights of Man (East vs West; Developing Countries vs Developed Countries) .
  • International Conventions on Civil and Political Rights, Social, Economic and Cultural Rights and Responsibilities.
  • Universal Declaration of Human Responsibilities.
  • Helsinki Declaration
  • International Conventions and Declarations Relating to specific:
  • Groups-Women, Child, Indigenous People, Minorities, Refugees.
  • Rights-Religious Freedom, Torture, Development, Racial Discrimination, Sexual Discrimination.
  • “Third Generation of Human Rights” Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights.


  • Society, Economy, Polity, Religion and Culture-their Inter-relationship
  • Impact of Social Structure on Human Behaviour; Role of Socialization in Human Values, Human Rights and Duties.
  • Science and Technology, Modernization, Globalization and Dehumanization.
  • Social Stratification: Racial and Caste Prejudice and Discrimination; Human Rights Issues of Weaker Sections and Ethnic Minorities.
  • Gender: Gender Discrimination, Domestic Violence and Rape.
  • Children: Child Abuse, Child Labour, Street Children.
  • Social Structure and Social Problems: Social and Communal Conflicts and Social Harmony.
  • Rural Poverty, Unemployment, Bonded Labour.
  • Urban Poverty, Slums, Lack of Basic Civil Services, Prostitution.
  • Migrant Workers and Human Rights Violations, Human Rights of Mentally and Physically Handicapped.
  • Environmental Degradation and Rights of Current vs Future Generate as.


  • State, Individual liberty, freedom and democracy.
  • The changing nature of State with special reference to the developing countries:
  • Soft State, Interventionist State, Welfare State, Repressive State.
  • Political Regimes and Human Rights in developed as well as developing countries.
  • Human Rights and International Politics: Emergence of a new global order-Tehran Conference (1968) -Vienna Conference (1993) -Human Rights, Environmental Degradation and Underdevelopment.
  • International Humanitarian Law: Geneva Conventions-International Red Cross Society-Refugee Protection and the Role of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees-International Tribunals (Rwanda and former Yugoslavia) and the International Criminal Court.
  • International Intervention: The question of Nation-State, Citizenship and Sovereignty.
  • Right of. Self-determination: Autonomous Movements, Secessionist Movements, Terrorist Movements and Transnational Terrorism.
  • Grassroots Movements and Human Rights.


  • Universal Human Rights: Context and the Concerns Universal Declaration of Human Rights International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Option Protocol.
  • International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination.
  • Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment.
  • The UN Convention on the protection of the Rights migrant workers-Indigenous People՚s Rights-Human Rights of Refugees.
  • Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women. Convention on Rights of Child.
  • African Charter-European and Inter-American Convention as Human Rights. Islamic Declaration of Human Rights.
  • UN Organs:
    1. UN Commission of Human Rights.
    2. UN Children՚s Fund (UNICEF) .
    3. UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) .
    4. UN Commission on the Status of Women.
    5. International Labour Organization (ILO) .
    6. UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) .
  • European Commission on Human Rights.
  • Humanitarian Law
  • Universal Human Rights: Changing World Order


  • Models of Development: Growth Approach, Basic Needs Approach, Sustainable Human Development, Development as Freedom.
  • Globalization and Human Rights: Dynamics of Globalization, Emergence of Market Forces, Assertion of Civil Society, Retreat of State, Privatization, Liberalization, Emergence of Information Age.
  • Economic Growth Strategies (Developing Countries) : Implications for Poverty, Employment, Planned Development and Social Inequality.
  • World Trade Organization: Implication for Human Rights Impact on Developing Countries with special reference to India; DSM (Dispute Settlement Mechanism) .
  • Intellectual Property Rights: Patents Law, Bio-diversity Convention, Agenda 21, Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPRs) , Trade Related International Investment Measures (TRIMs) , General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) , Agreement on Agriculture (AOA) .
  • Transnational Corporations (TNCs) and Human Rights Situation in Developing Countries.
  • International Labour Organization (ILO) , Conventions and Standards for Human Rights and Quality of Life.
  • Right to Development: The Third World Concerns, Working Group Recommendations, UNDP-initiatives.
  • State and Development of the Marginahzed/Disadvantaged Groups in India: The Poor, the Unemployed and the Socially Dislocated People.
  • Minimum Wages Act-Problems of Implementation, Right to Security of Food, Health and Education.
  • New Social Movements, Democratic Struggles and Human Rights.


  • Concepts of Development, Underdevelopment and Social Action.
  • Need for Collective Action in Developing Societies and Methods of Social Action.
  • Social Movements: Political, Social and Religious Reform.
  • Agrarian and Peasant Movements.
  • Backward Class, Dalit and Women Movements.
  • Ecological and Environment Movements.
  • Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) : Structure, Functions and Problems.
  • NGOs and Human Rights Movements: Amnesty International, Asia Watch, International Committee of Red Cross.
  • NGOs and Human Rights in India: Land, Water and Forest Issues.
  • Human Rights Movement: People՚s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) , People՚s Union for Democratic Rights (PUDR) and other Civil and Democratic Rights Organization in India.


  • Indian Civilization: Change and Continuity.
  • Indian Constitution: Freedom Movement.
  • Indian Constitution: Sociological Foundation.
  • Constitutional Vision of role of the State.
  • Constitutional Vision of Freedom: Fundamental Rights.
  • Constitutional Vision of Justice: Directive Principles of State Policy.
  • Constitutional Amendments.
  • Constitution: Human Duties.
  • Judicial Interpretations: Landmark Judgements.
  • Constitutional Review: The Contemporary Debates.


  • Constitutional Governance: State of Rule of Law.
  • Constitutional Organs: Inter and intra-relationships/conflict and cooperation.
  • Fundamental Rights and Repressive Laws: Preventive Detention, MISA, NASA, TADA, Armed Force Special Power Act and Criminal Law Amendment.
  • Imposition of National Emergency: The Societal Experience.
  • The Criminal Justice System: Crime, Punishment and Human Rights with special reference-IPC & CRPC and Indian Evidence Act.
  • The Directive Principles of State Policy: The Question of Effectiveness and Enforcement.
  • Judicial Activism: Public Interest Litigation.
  • Legislation for the Weaker Sections: The Question of Enforcement.
  • Law Enforcing Agencies: Police, military, Para-military-emerging experience.
  • Human Rights Enforcement: NHRC, State Human Rights Commissions, Human Rights Courts.
  • Human Rights Education: Problems and Prospects.


  • Inter-relativity of Human Rights and Responsibilities.
  • Diverse Perspectives of Human Rights, Revolution of Rising Aspirations and Needs of the Peoples Worldover.
  • Challenging problems in the areas of the Right of self-determination of peoples; the Protection of Minorities; the Rights of Indigenous peoples; the Rights of Women and the Child, Freedom from Torture; Freedom from Pollution, Freedom from any Discrimination.
  • The Problems of the Right to-Development; the Problems of the Right to Clean Environment; the Problems of the Right to Racial Discrimination.
  • Freedom from Sexual Discrimination and Harassment.
  • Protection of Refugees and of Civilians in Armed Conflict.
  • Right to Life and the Basic Needs-Food, Water, Health, Housing and Education.
  • Right to Information.
  • Assertion of the Identity of Ethnic Groups.
  • Universal Entitlement of People to Democracy as a Legitimate form of Government.
  • Duties and Rights: State Duties and the Duties of other Entities Exercising Authority.
  • Retreat of the Nation-State.
  • Science, Technology, and Human Rights and Duties.
  • Need of Spelling out Human Duties and Eternal Human Values.

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