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Paper 3 has been removed from NET from 2018 (Notification)- now paper 2 and 3 syllabus is included in paper 2
NTA (UGC) NET June-December 2019 Syllabus for Tourism Administration and Management
NTA (UGC) NET Tourism Administration and Management Syllabus 2012
Code No. 93
Subject: Tourism Administration and Management
- There will be two question papers. NTA (UGC) NET Tourism Paper II and Paper-III.
- Paper II will consist of 50 questions worth 2 mark each.
- Paper III will consist of 75 questions worth 2 mark each.
NTA (UGC) NET Tourism Paper II and III
- Tourist/Visitor/Traveller/Excursionist-definition and differentiation. Tourism recreation and leisure inter-relationship (s). Tourism components, Elements and infrastructure. Types and typologies of Tourism.
- Emerging concepts: Eco/rural/agri./farai/green/wilderness/country side/special interest tourism.
- Tourism Trends: Growth and development over the years and factors responsible therein. Changing market-destination patterns, Traffic flows/receipt trends. Travel motivator and deterrents. Pull and Push forces in tourism.
- Linkages and channels of distribution in Tourism:
- Tourism Organisation/Institutions: Origin, Organisation and functions of WTO, PATA, IATA, ICAO, FHRAI, TAAI, IATO and UFTAA.
- Concept of resource, Attraction and product in tourism. Tourism products: Typology and unique features.
- Natural Tourism Resources in India: Existing use patterns vis-a-vis potential with relation to varied landforms (mountains, deserts, beaches, coastal areas and Islands), Water bodies and biotic wealth (flora-fauna).
- Popular tourist destination for land based (soft/hard trekking, ice skiing, mountaineering, desert safaris, car rallies, etc.), water based (rafting, kayaking, canoeing, surfing, water skiing, scuba/snuba diving) and air based (para-sailing, para-gliding, ballooning, hand-gliding and microlighting, etc) tourist activities. Wildlife-Tourism and conservation related issues-Occurrence and distribution of popular wildlife species in India. Tourism in National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves (case of Dachigham Corbett/Dudhwa/Kaziranga/Kanha/Gir/Ranthambor/Mudumalai/Sunderbans/Shivpuri/Manas/Nanda Devi/Valley of flowers reserves). Tourism and nature conservation-Conflicts, Symbiosis and Synergy.
- Cultural Tourism Resources in India: Indian Culture and society. Indian History-Ancient, Medieval and Modern.
- Traditions, Customs and costumes: Life style and settlement patterns. Food habits and cuisine. Music, Musical instruments and Dance forms; Drawing and painting; Craftsmanship.
- Religion/religious observances and important pilgrim destinations.
- Architectural Heritage-Forts/palaces/other architectural marvels-Location and unique features.
- Accommodation: Concept, Types and Typologies, Linkages and Significance with relation to tourism.
- Emerging dimensions of accommodation industry-Heritage hotels, Motels and resort properties. Time share establishments.
- Hotel and Hoteliering: Origin, Growth and diversification. Classification, registration and gradation of hotels. Organisational structure, Functions and responsibilities of the various departments of a standard hotel/other catering outlets, viz. bars, restaurants, fast food centres. In flight catering.
- Leading multinational hotel chains operating in India. Public sector in hoteliering business-Role, Contribution and Performance.
- HRD perspective with special reference to India-Requirements, Training facilities, Constraints and Scope.
- Fiscal and non-fiscal incentive available to hotel industry in India. Ethical, Legal and regulatory aspects.
- Transportation: Dynamically Changing needs and means.
- Landmarks in the development of transport sector and the consequent socio-economic, Cultural and environmental implications. Tourism transport system.
- Airlines Transportation: The Airlines Industry-Origin and Growth. Organisation of Air Transport Industry in International context. Scheduled and non-scheduled Airlines services; Air taxis. Multinational Air Transport Regulations-Nature, Significance and Limitations. Role of LATA, ICAO and other agencies. Bermuda Convention.
- Air Transport Industry in India-DGCA and other key players; Regulatory Framework; Air Corporation Act, Indian carriers-Operations, management and performance. Marketing strategies of Air India.
- Significance of Road Transport in Tourism: Growth and Development of road transport system in India; State of existing infrastructure; Public and Private Sector involvement; Role of Regional Transport Authority. Approved Travel Agencies, Tour/Transport Operators, Car hire/Rental companies.
- State and inter-state bus and coach network, Insurance provision road taxes and fitness certificate.
- Rail Transport Network-Major Railway Systems of World-British Rail, Euro Rail and Amtrak.
- Types of special package offered by Indian Railways to tourists-Indrail pass, Palace on Wheels and Royal Orient.
- Reservation procedures. GSAs abroad.
- Water Transport System in India-Historical past, Cruise ships, Ferries, Hovercraft, River and canal boats, Fly cruise. Future prospects.
- Travel Agency and Tour Operations Business: Origin, Growth and development; Definition, Differentiation and linkages; Organisation and functions-Travel information counselling, Itinerary preparation, Reservation, Tour costing/pricing. Marketing of tour packages. Income sources.
- Airlines Ticketing: Operational perspectives of ticketing-ABC codes, Flight schedules, Flying time and MPM/TPM calculation, TIM (Travel Information Mannual) consultation. Routine and itinerary preparation, Types of fare, Fare calculation and rounding-up. Currency conversion and payment modes, Issuance of ticket.
- Cargo Handling: Baggage allowance, Free access baggage. Weight and piece concept. Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods; Cargo rates and valuation charges, Automation and airport procedures.
- Requirements for setting-up travel agency and tour operations business, Approval from organisation and institutions concerned. Incentives available in Indian context. Constraints and limitations.
- Marketing: Core concepts in marketing; Needs, Wants, Demands, Products, markets. Marketing management philosophies-Production, Product, Selling, Marketing and societal perspectives. Economic importance of marketing.
- Tourism marketing: Service characteristics of tourism. Unique features of tourist demand and tourism product/Tourism marketing mix.
- Analysis and selection of market: Measuring and forecasting tourism demand; Forecasting methods, Managing capacity and demand. Market segmentation and positioning.
- Developing marketing environment, Consumer buying behaviour. Competitive differentiation and competitive marketing strategies, New product development, product life cycle, Customer satisfaction and related strategies in internal and external marketing; Interactive and relationship marketing.
- Planning Marketing Programs: Product and product strategies; Product line, Product mix, Branding and packaging. Pricing; considerations, Approaches and strategies. Distribution channels and strategies.
- Marketing of Tourism Services: Marketing of Airlines, Hotel, Resort, Travel Agencies and other tourism related services-Challenges and strategies.
- Marketing Skills for Tourism: Creativity-Communication-Self-motivation-Team Building-Personality Development.
- Tourism Planning: Origin, Concept and approaches. Levels and types of tourism planning-Sectoral, Spatial, Integrated, Complex, Centralized and Decentralized. Product life cycle theories and their applicability in tourism planning, Urban and rural tourism planning.
- Tourism planning and policy perspectives; planning at national, state and regional levels. India's tourism policies.
- Tourism Planning Process: Objective setting, Background analysis, Detailed research and analysis, Synthesis, Goal setting and Plan formulation, Evaluation of tourism project-Project feasibility study; Plan implementation, Development and monitoring. Tourism master plan.
- Tourism impacts and need for sustainable tourism planning: Socio-cultural, Economic and physical, Tourism carrying capacity and environmental impact analysis (EIA).
- Business ethics and laws-their relevance and applicability in Travel and Tourism industry.
- Law and legislation relating to tourist entry, Stay, Departure, Passport, Visa and Health.
- Tourist safety and security, Preservation and conservation of heritage environment, Archaeological sites and wildlife.
- The nature of field techniques; Field techniques and tourism and hotel business; Importance; and Limitations.
- Research: Meaning; Types; Trends; and challenges with special reference to tourism and hotel business. Guiding principles in selection of research problem.
- Research Methodology: Meaning; Procedural Guidelines; and Research design.
- Field Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis Techniques: Nature, sources of data, Techniques of data collection.
- Frequency Distribution: Meanings; Problems and considerations in construction numerical frequency distributions.
- Measures of Central tendency and variation.
- Correlation and regressions analysis.
- Probability and Probability Distributions:
- Probability: Meaning; Definition; and sample points and sample space, Events; Conditional probability; Bayes theorem and probability on large sample space.
- Probability Distributions: The binomial model; The poisson model; and Normal distribution.
- Sampling and Statistical Testing:
- Sampling and Sample Designs: Sampling and reasons for sampling; Theoretical basis of sampling; Basic concepts of sampling and types of sampling (Random and Non-random sampling). Central Limit theorem.
- Statistical Testing: Formulation and general procedure of testing of hypothesis, One-tail test and Two-tail test.
- Parametric and Non-Parametric Testing:
- Testing the Hypothesis: Comparison of two population means; Comparison of two population proportions; and Comparison of two population means and standard deviations.
- F-test, Student's distribution and Chi-square test.
- Management: Concept, Nature, Process and functions. Management levels, Managerial skills and roles. The external environment, Social responsibilities and ethics.
- Planning: Nature, Purpose, Types and process. Management by objectives strategies and policies. Decision-making, Process, Tools and techniques. Decision-making models.
- Organising: Concept of organising and organisation. Line and staff, Authority and responsibility, Span of control, Delegation, Decentralization, Conflict and coordination, Organisational structure and design, Management of change. Innovation and organisation development.
- Directing: Communication-Process, Types, Barriers and principles of effective communication. Motivation-Theories and practices, Leadership-Concept, theories and styles.
- Controlling: Process, Methods and techniques. Managing international business.
- Information Systems: Automation of Manual System, Data Processing stages. Evolution from EDP to MIS.
- MIS: Introduction, Definition, Status, Framework of understanding and designing MIS.
- Computer Networking: Application of CRS (Computerized Reservation Systems) in travel trade and hospitality sector.
- Financial Management and Planning:
- Finance: Meaning; Goals; Functions; Importance; and typologies of Finance-Role of financial management, Organisation goals; Environment; Forecasting and financial planning. Break-even analysis.
- Management of Current Assets:
- Working Capital Management: Meaning and characteristics of working capital; Financing current assets. Cash management, Receivables management and inventory management.
- Management of Fixed Assets; Importance of Capital Budgeting. Analytical Techniques-Non-discounted, Discounted Techniques.
- Financial Structures and Management of Earnings:
- Meaning, Difference between financial and capital structures. Determinants of Financial Structure.
- Financial leverage and effects of Financial Leverage on Net Income and Shareholders wealth. Financial leverage and financial planning. Break-even analysis for financial leverage. Dividend Policy, Significance of dividend policy and different types of dividend policies.
- TFCI: Tourism Finance Corporation of India (TFCI) -Aims, Objectives, Organisation and Functions.
- Accounting: Preparation of Business Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash flow statement and Fund flow statement. Hotel Accounting.