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NTA (UGC) NET June-December 2021 Syllabus for Tourism Administration and Management

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NTA (UGC) NET Tourism Administration and Management Syllabus 2012

Code No. 93

Subject: Tourism Administration and Management


  • There will be two question papers. NTA (UGC) NET Tourism Paper II and Paper-III.
  • Paper II will consist of 50 questions worth 2 mark each.
  • Paper III will consist of 75 questions worth 2 mark each.

NTA (UGC) NET Tourism Paper II and III


  • Tourist/Visitor/Traveller/Excursionist-definition and differentiation. Tourism recreation and leisure inter-relationship (s) . Tourism components, Elements and infrastructure. Types and typologies of Tourism.
  • Emerging concepts: Eco/rural/agri. /farai/green/wilderness/country side/special interest tourism.
  • Tourism Trends: Growth and development over the years and factors responsible therein. Changing market-destination patterns, Traffic flows/receipt trends. Travel motivator and deterrents. Pull and Push forces in tourism.
  • Linkages and channels of distribution in Tourism:
  • Tourism Organisation/Institutions: Origin, Organisation and functions of WTO, PATA, IATA, ICAO, FHRAI, TAAI, IATO and UFTAA.


  • Concept of resource, Attraction and product in tourism. Tourism products: Typology and unique features.
  • Natural Tourism Resources in India: Existing use patterns vis-a-vis potential with relation to varied landforms (mountains, deserts, beaches, coastal areas and Islands) , Water bodies and biotic wealth (flora-fauna) .
  • Popular tourist destination for land based (soft/hard trekking, ice skiing, mountaineering, desert safaris, car rallies, etc.) , water based (rafting, kayaking, canoeing, surfing, water skiing, scuba/snuba diving) and air based (para-sailing, para-gliding, ballooning, hand-gliding and microlighting, etc) tourist activities. Wildlife-Tourism and conservation related issues-Occurrence and distribution of popular wildlife species in India. Tourism in National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves (case of Dachigham Corbett/Dudhwa/Kaziranga/Kanha/Gir/Ranthambor/Mudumalai/Sunderbans/Shivpuri/Manas/Nanda Devi/Valley of flowers reserves) . Tourism and nature conservation-Conflicts, Symbiosis and Synergy.
  • Cultural Tourism Resources in India: Indian Culture and society. Indian History-Ancient, Medieval and Modern.
  • Traditions, Customs and costumes: Life style and settlement patterns. Food habits and cuisine. Music, Musical instruments and Dance forms; Drawing and painting; Craftsmanship.
  • Religion/religious observances and important pilgrim destinations.
  • Architectural Heritage-Forts/palaces/other architectural marvels-Location and unique features.


  • Accommodation: Concept, Types and Typologies, Linkages and Significance with relation to tourism.
  • Emerging dimensions of accommodation industry-Heritage hotels, Motels and resort properties. Time share establishments.
  • Hotel and Hoteliering: Origin, Growth and diversification. Classification, registration and gradation of hotels. Organisational structure, Functions and responsibilities of the various departments of a standard hotel/other catering outlets, viz. bars, restaurants, fast food centres. In flight catering.
  • Leading multinational hotel chains operating in India. Public sector in hoteliering business-Role, Contribution and Performance.
  • HRD perspective with special reference to India-Requirements, Training facilities, Constraints and Scope.
  • Fiscal and non-fiscal incentive available to hotel industry in India. Ethical, Legal and regulatory aspects.


  • Transportation: Dynamically Changing needs and means.
  • Landmarks in the development of transport sector and the consequent socio-economic, Cultural and environmental implications. Tourism transport system.
  • Airlines Transportation: The Airlines Industry-Origin and Growth. Organisation of Air Transport Industry in International context. Scheduled and non-scheduled Airlines services; Air taxis. Multinational Air Transport Regulations-Nature, Significance and Limitations. Role of LATA, ICAO and other agencies. Bermuda Convention.
  • Air Transport Industry in India-DGCA and other key players; Regulatory Framework; Air Corporation Act, Indian carriers-Operations, management and performance. Marketing strategies of Air India.
  • Significance of Road Transport in Tourism: Growth and Development of road transport system in India; State of existing infrastructure; Public and Private Sector involvement; Role of Regional Transport Authority. Approved Travel Agencies, Tour/Transport Operators, Car hire/Rental companies.
  • State and inter-state bus and coach network, Insurance provision road taxes and fitness certificate.
  • Rail Transport Network-Major Railway Systems of World-British Rail, Euro Rail and Amtrak.
  • Types of special package offered by Indian Railways to tourists-Indrail pass, Palace on Wheels and Royal Orient.
  • Reservation procedures. GSAs abroad.
  • Water Transport System in India-Historical past, Cruise ships, Ferries, Hovercraft, River and canal boats, Fly cruise. Future prospects.


  • Travel Agency and Tour Operations Business: Origin, Growth and development; Definition, Differentiation and linkages; Organisation and functions-Travel information counselling, Itinerary preparation, Reservation, Tour costing/pricing. Marketing of tour packages. Income sources.
  • Airlines Ticketing: Operational perspectives of ticketing-ABC codes, Flight schedules, Flying time and MPM/TPM calculation, TIM (Travel Information Mannual) consultation. Routine and itinerary preparation, Types of fare, Fare calculation and rounding-up. Currency conversion and payment modes, Issuance of ticket.
  • Cargo Handling: Baggage allowance, Free access baggage. Weight and piece concept. Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods; Cargo rates and valuation charges, Automation and airport procedures.
  • Requirements for setting-up travel agency and tour operations business, Approval from organisation and institutions concerned. Incentives available in Indian context. Constraints and limitations.


  • Marketing: Core concepts in marketing; Needs, Wants, Demands, Products, markets. Marketing management philosophies-Production, Product, Selling, Marketing and societal perspectives. Economic importance of marketing.
  • Tourism marketing: Service characteristics of tourism. Unique features of tourist demand and tourism product/Tourism marketing mix.
  • Analysis and selection of market: Measuring and forecasting tourism demand; Forecasting methods, Managing capacity and demand. Market segmentation and positioning.
  • Developing marketing environment, Consumer buying behaviour. Competitive differentiation and competitive marketing strategies, New product development, product life cycle, Customer satisfaction and related strategies in internal and external marketing; Interactive and relationship marketing.
  • Planning Marketing Programs: Product and product strategies; Product line, Product mix, Branding and packaging. Pricing; considerations, Approaches and strategies. Distribution channels and strategies.
  • Marketing of Tourism Services: Marketing of Airlines, Hotel, Resort, Travel Agencies and other tourism related services-Challenges and strategies.
  • Marketing Skills for Tourism: Creativity-Communication-Self-motivation-Team Building-Personality Development.


  • Tourism Planning: Origin, Concept and approaches. Levels and types of tourism planning-Sectoral, Spatial, Integrated, Complex, Centralized and Decentralized. Product life cycle theories and their applicability in tourism planning, Urban and rural tourism planning.
  • Tourism planning and policy perspectives; planning at national, state and regional levels. India՚s tourism policies.
  • Tourism Planning Process: Objective setting, Background analysis, Detailed research and analysis, Synthesis, Goal setting and Plan formulation, Evaluation of tourism project-Project feasibility study; Plan implementation, Development and monitoring. Tourism master plan.
  • Tourism impacts and need for sustainable tourism planning: Socio-cultural, Economic and physical, Tourism carrying capacity and environmental impact analysis (EIA) .
  • Business ethics and laws-their relevance and applicability in Travel and Tourism industry.
  • Law and legislation relating to tourist entry, Stay, Departure, Passport, Visa and Health.
  • Tourist safety and security, Preservation and conservation of heritage environment, Archaeological sites and wildlife.


  • The nature of field techniques; Field techniques and tourism and hotel business; Importance; and Limitations.
  • Research: Meaning; Types; Trends; and challenges with special reference to tourism and hotel business. Guiding principles in selection of research problem.
  • Research Methodology: Meaning; Procedural Guidelines; and Research design.
  • Field Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis Techniques: Nature, sources of data, Techniques of data collection.
  • Frequency Distribution: Meanings; Problems and considerations in construction numerical frequency distributions.
  • Measures of Central tendency and variation.
  • Correlation and regressions analysis.
  • Probability and Probability Distributions:
    1. Probability: Meaning; Definition; and sample points and sample space, Events; Conditional probability; Bayes theorem and probability on large sample space.
    2. Probability Distributions: The binomial model; The poisson model; and Normal distribution.
    3. Sampling and Statistical Testing:
    4. Sampling and Sample Designs: Sampling and reasons for sampling; Theoretical basis of sampling; Basic concepts of sampling and types of sampling (Random and Non-random sampling) . Central Limit theorem.
    5. Statistical Testing: Formulation and general procedure of testing of hypothesis, One-tail test and Two-tail test.
  • Parametric and Non-Parametric Testing:
    1. Testing the Hypothesis: Comparison of two population means; Comparison of two population proportions; and Comparison of two population means and standard deviations.
    2. F-test, Student՚s distribution and Chi-square test.


  • Management: Concept, Nature, Process and functions. Management levels, Managerial skills and roles. The external environment, Social responsibilities and ethics.
  • Planning: Nature, Purpose, Types and process. Management by objectives strategies and policies. Decision-making, Process, Tools and techniques. Decision-making models.
  • Organising: Concept of organising and organisation. Line and staff, Authority and responsibility, Span of control, Delegation, Decentralization, Conflict and coordination, Organisational structure and design, Management of change. Innovation and organisation development.
  • Directing: Communication-Process, Types, Barriers and principles of effective communication. Motivation-Theories and practices, Leadership-Concept, theories and styles.
  • Controlling: Process, Methods and techniques. Managing international business.
  • Information Systems: Automation of Manual System, Data Processing stages. Evolution from EDP to MIS.
  • MIS: Introduction, Definition, Status, Framework of understanding and designing MIS.
  • Computer Networking: Application of CRS (Computerized Reservation Systems) in travel trade and hospitality sector.


  • Financial Management and Planning:
  • Finance: Meaning; Goals; Functions; Importance; and typologies of Finance-Role of financial management, Organisation goals; Environment; Forecasting and financial planning. Break-even analysis.
  • Management of Current Assets:
    1. Working Capital Management: Meaning and characteristics of working capital; Financing current assets. Cash management, Receivables management and inventory management.
    2. Management of Fixed Assets; Importance of Capital Budgeting. Analytical Techniques-Non-discounted, Discounted Techniques.
  • Financial Structures and Management of Earnings:
    1. Meaning, Difference between financial and capital structures. Determinants of Financial Structure.
    2. Financial leverage and effects of Financial Leverage on Net Income and Shareholders wealth. Financial leverage and financial planning. Break-even analysis for financial leverage. Dividend Policy, Significance of dividend policy and different types of dividend policies.
  • TFCI: Tourism Finance Corporation of India (TFCI) -Aims, Objectives, Organisation and Functions.
  • Accounting: Preparation of Business Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash flow statement and Fund flow statement. Hotel Accounting.

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