Expected Questions in Computers (Part 1)

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Smart India Hackathon 2018՚s Grand Finale on March 30,31st at 28 Nodal Centres:- Smart India Hackathon 2018 was unique initiative to identify new & disruptive digital technology innovations for solving challenges faced by country.

  • Grand Finale of Smart India Hackathon 2018 (Software Edition) will be 36-hour software product development competition.
  • It will be held on 30th & 31st March at 28 nodal centres across country.

About Smart India Hackathon

  • World՚s largest nation-building initiative Smart India Hackathon is organized to harness innovative brilliance of youth & develop digital products for solving some of country՚s pressing problems.
  • On 2nd year, Smart India Hackathon has 2 editions - Software & Hardware Editions.
  • In Smart India Hackathon 2018 finals, 1296 teams comprise of around 8000 students will attempt to give solutions for 340 software problems listed by authorities.

Participation in Smart India Hackathon

Some projects of SIH developed by students. Projects include special pendrive to prevent data theft (for ISRO) , Airport crowd management system (for Air India) , platform for North-East artefacts, gaming solution for health benefits (for Ministry of AYUSH) .


  • After reviewing received problem statements, 408 problems (340 for software & 68 for hardware) were finally selected for Smart India Hackathon 2018 & are put on MyGov platform.
  • 1st edition of SIH2017 has received 598 problem statements from 29 Central ministries.

DNA Computers Can Grow Itself- Store More and be Faster Than Conventional Computers

Scientists have designed new, super-fast computer made of DNA molecules that grows as it computes & can outperform all standard systems in solving practical problems.

Researchers from University of Manchester showed feasibility of engineering universal turing machine (UTM) - computer that can be programmed to compute anything any other device can process. Electronic computers are form of UTM.

DNA Computers

Plasmids as Storage Exchange

  • Continuing w/same goal to find & edit specific sections, latest development comes from international collaboration b/w universities in Italy, Sweden & Ireland, where researchers are taking advantage of bacteria & their small rings of DNA called plasmids.
  • Microorganisms “swap” b/w themselves in process known as conjugation.
  • Idea is to “save” data in plasmids trapped in specific location. To “open” these files, researchers send mobile bacteria to visit their trapped counterparts.
  • Team generated DNA sequence coded for message “Hello World” , which was inserted into group of trapped bacteria & successfully retrieved after conjugation from group of motile bacteria.

Operations in DNA Computers

  • Storage isn՚t only application for DNA in computers. DNA can even be “taught” to perform operations.
  • DNA computer has work on principle of reading code & performing command, except hard drive is DNA sequence & processor is enzyme used to copy DNA.
  • DNA code is recognised by shorter piece of DNA, which then causes rest of DNA to be copied. Once code is recognised, it can be specifically altered to make new command. This is done by process called PCR [polymerase chain reaction] , widely used technique used to copy DNA.
  • In DNA computer, each computation is represented by single DNA strand, which allows to utilise many trillions of computations happening at same time.

M3 Computer Claims to be the World՚s Smallest

  • Michigan Micro Mote, or M3, has been released & claimed to be smallest in world.
  • M3 Computer - Designed for Internet of Things (IoT) it measures 1 cubic mm. It packs sensors & other features into single package.
  • M3 Computer is smaller than rice grain.
  • Created by research team at University of Michigan, scaled-down M3 is complete computing node w/wireless sensing & incorporates signal processing, memory, & low-resolution imager alongside temp. sensor, & on-board CMOS timer.
  • Diminutive device communicates over Wi-Fi & charges small battery by harnessing solar energy.

Secret of M3: Stacked Layers and MBus

  • Michigan Micro Mote is built in stacked layers which are able to communicate thru specially-designed universal interface protocol called MBus.
  • Each M3 computer contains solar cell & optical communication photocell, harvester control electronics layer, radio layer, sensor interface layer (temp sensor & capacitive interface electronics) , layer w/capacitors for stabilizing power supplies, processor, memory, power regulation layer & battery layer. There is optional layer for pressure sensor.

Indian Railways to Accept Digital Aadhaar, Driving Licence as ID Proof from Govt. ′ S DigiLocker

  • Railways will accept soft copies of Aadhar & driving license provided they are in your DigiLocker, digital storage service operated by govt. that enables Indian citizens to store certain official documents on cloud.
  • National transporter has sent missive to all zonal principal chief commercial managers that these 2 identity proofs on such service will be accepted as valid proof of identity of passenger.
  • If passenger shows Aadhaar or driving licence from ‘issued documents’ section by logging into his DigiLocker account, same should be considered as valid proof of identity.
  • It has clarified that documents uploaded by passenger himself that is documents in ‘uploaded documents’ section will not be considered as valid proof of identity.

Other Achievements of DigiLocker

  • As part of govt. ′ s Digital India movement, DigiLocker can currently store digital driving licences & Aadhaar.
  • Cloud-based platform have already tied up w/CBSE to provide digital versions of mark sheets of students. Subscribers can integrate their Permanent Account Number (PAN) with DigiLocker.

Road Transport Ministry Approves Digi Locker- Drive Without Carrying Your Driving License

Ministry of Road Transport has made digital driving license & vehicle՚s RC papers stored in Digi Lockers are now legally recognized at par w/original documents as per IT Act 2000 & is valid under Motor Vehicles Act 1988.

Background on Accepting Digilockers

  • Number of suggestions & RTI applications were received in which citizens have raised issues that travel documents including DL & RC to be legalized on Digi Locker or mParivahan app.
  • These documents on Digi Locker or mParivahan are now legally recognized at par w/original documents as per provisions of Information Technology Act, 2000.
How to Use the DigitaLocker

How DL & RC Can Be Stored in DigiLockers?

  • DigiLocker is cloud storage system launched in September 2016 to enable users to store all their govt. documents in digital format.
  • Service was launched to help in integration of mobile application Digi Locker w/driving licence & vehicle registration certificate.
  • We just need to have Aadhaar card linked to your cell number to open account.
  • Driving Licences & Vehicle Registration documents can be issued directly to Digi lockers of individuals in digital formats. These can be shared w/other departments for verification purpose.

India՚s First in-Phone Guide and Mobile Application “Go What՚s That” in Chandigarh

Union Minister for Petroleum & Natural Gas & Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, laid foundation stone of National Skill Training Institute (NSTI) for Women at Mohali, Punjab. 1,100 tags are placed at diff. tourist spots, which will give accurate information on each artifact.

National Skill Training Institute (NSTI)

  • This is 1st NSTI Institute for Punjab & is exclusively for women.
  • It would be developed into “Trainers Training Institute” which will give training in traditional areas for women like beauty care, cosmetology & fashion design & in technology.

Other Announcements:

  • Minister launched 1st of its kind unique Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra (PMKK) for differently abled persons in Mohali.
  • He launched India՚s 1st in-phone guide & mobile application “Go whats That” in Chandigarh.

“Go Whats That” Application

  • This is 1st of its kind app where tourist can scan QR code at heritage site to download history & details of that place in multiple languages.
  • App will help UT Administration in data analytics by getting real-time updates on each place, including number of tourists visiting places, scan details, etc.

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