Expected Questions in Environment & Latest Developments Part 3 (Set 1)

⪻ Articles ⪼

A ₹ 5 crore insect museum with the state-of-the-art amenities was unveiled by Tamil Nadu Chief Minister at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore fully dedicated to insects and claimed to be the first of its in the country.

About Museuem

  • It would display insects preserved as specimens as also live ones depicting their different developmental stages, images, videos and models of their unique behaviour, habits and habitats.
  • The uniqueness of the museum is visible in the lobby, which depicts the theme, “BUGS ARE KINGS,” while the exhibiting area comprises seven radial walls (bay) on the right side and an undivided wall on the left side.
  • A section on social insect exhibiting termite mounds (whole and sectioned) and bee hives of different kinds and forms would also be exhibited.
  • A souvenir shop and a mini auditorium to screen insect movies and documentary films are available.
  • Ramp is provided to facilitate the visit of the physically challenged persons.

Biggest Solar Power Plant in Uttar Pradesh

  • Biggest Solar Power Plant has been set up in UP through transparent auction under the Solar Park scheme of New and Renewable Energy Ministry. Viability Gap Funding (VGF) of ₹ 74.25 lakh per MW was provided by the GoI for the project.
  • Prime Minister of India and French President Emmanuel Macron inaugurated Uttar Pradesh՚s biggest solar power plant of 75 MW (101DC) capacity in Mirzapur on 12th March.

Mirzapur Plant

  • Built at a cost of around ₹ 528 crores, the 75 MW solar plant at Vijaypur village in Mirzapur, to generate 13 crore units of electricity per annum.
  • The power plant has been set up by the French firm ENGIE through a transparent bidding process under the Solar Park Scheme of the New and Renewable Energy Ministry.
  • The electricity generated by the project to be supplied by ENGIE at the rate of ₹ 4.43 per unit for a period of 25 years. Some 1,18, 600 solar panels have been set up in over 380 acres.
  • Power generated from the power plant to be transmitted to Jigna sub-station of Mirzapur range of Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Ltd. The plant is to generate 15.6 crore units of electricity annually, about 1.30 crore units per month.
  • These solar parks are being set up by Lucknow Solar Park Development Corporation (LSPDC) which is a joint venture of Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) and Non-conventional Energy Development Agency (NEDA) under UP Government.

Other Solar Plants in U. P

  • A 50 MW solar power plant has already come up in Allahabad.
  • Another 40 MW solar power is ready for commissioning in Jalaun district.
  • With the inauguration of 75 MW power plants in Mirzapur by the PM, the total capacity of solar power plants in UP has gone up to 165 MW.
  • Biddings of 225 MW solar power plants will be opened on 12th April, 2018.

Founding Conference of International Solar Alliance

The founding conference of the India-initiated International Solar Alliance (ISA) was held in New Delhi on March 11. President of India had hosted dinner for all the members of ISA who had attended the founding Conference.

  • The ISA, launched at the UN Conference of Parties (CoP) climate summit in Paris on November 30,2015, by Indian PM and then French President Francois Hollande, in the presence of the Secretary General of the UN, on the side lines of COP21 UN Climate Change Conference
  • It is open to all 121 prospective member countries falling between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
  • The interim secretariat of the ISA was inaugurated on January 25,2016.


  • The primary objective of the alliance is to work for efficient exploitation of solar energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
  • The alliance is a treaty-based inter-governmental organization.
  • The framework agreement of the International Solar Alliance opened for signatures in Marrakech, Morocco in November 2016.
  • ISA has presently four ongoing programmes:
  • Scaling Solar Applications for Agricultural Use
  • Affordable Finance at Scale
  • Scaling Solar Mini Grids
  • Scaling Solar Rooftop catering to the needs of solar energy in specific areas.
  • The Framework Agreement coming into force on 6th December 2017.
  • The International Solar Alliance (ISA) and Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) signed Host Country Agreement in New Delhi.

Objectives of ISA

  • To reduce the cost of finance and the cost of technology
  • To mobilize more than US $ 1000 billion of investments needed by 2030 for massive deployment of solar energy,
  • To pave the way for future technologies adapted to the needs of its members.

Surya Mitra & Solar Study Lamp Scheme

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has distributed one million solar study lamps under Solar Study Lamp Scheme for states including Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh.

  • ‘One million Solar Study Lamps Scheme’ has been successfully implemented or distributed under Solar Study Lamp Scheme.
  • In Rajasthan a total of 3.06 lakh solar study lamps have been distributed and 927 persons including 360 women have been trained for local assembly and repair of the solar study lamps.

Surya Mitra

  • National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) , an autonomous institution of MNRE, is the apex National R&D institution in the field of Solar Energy.
  • NISE is organizing “Suryamitra” skill development programs in collaboration with State Nodal Agencies, at various locations across the country.
  • Programme aims to develop the skills of youth, considering the opportunities for employment in the growing Solar Energy Power project՚s installation, operation & maintenance in India and abroad.
  • Suryamitra Program is also designed to prepare the candidates to become new entrepreneurs in Solar Energy sector.

‘Green Good Deeds’ Movement Launched by Dr Harsh Vardhan

  • Union Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change (MoEFCC) launched Green Good Deeds campaign. Purpose of people-oriented campaign is to sensitize people & students, in particular abt climate change & global warming.

Spreading the Word

  • Need for ‘Green Sainiks’ on lines of ‘Polio Sainiks’ to broaden ‘Green Good Deeds’ campaign & take it to grassroots level.
  • Campaign aims to broad its base w/involvement of teachers, students & other voluntary organizations.

‘Green Good Deeds’ Gets Global Recognition

  • At ongoing 4th BRICS Environment Ministerial in Durban, South Africa, Indian insisted BRICS nations to help in development of social movement to safeguard environment.
  • BRICS Ministerial on Environment agreed to include “Green Good Deeds” in its official agenda in next Ministerial in Brazil & another meeting in Russia.
  • Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change has created list of more than 500 Green Good Deeds.
  • These small deeds to be performed by individuals or organizations to participate in environmental protection is put up in mobile application
  • Environment ministry had launched campaign in January 2018.

What is a Phumdi? Floating Lab to Monitor Manipur՚s Loktak Lake

  • Institute of Bio-resources and Sustainable Laboratory (IBSD) , Imphal, set up a floating laboratory in northeast India՚s largest freshwater lake, Loktak to constantly monitor its water quality and eventually improve it.
  • The laboratory was inaugurated by Manipur՚s Forest and Environment Minister in Imphal.
  • It is a joint venture between LDA and ISBD to launch the floating laboratory.

How Will the Lab Help?

  • Floating laboratory will boost finding the flora and fauna data and the data would be useful in future.
  • Helpful in conservation and sustainable development of the lake thereby improving the life of the lake dwellers drastically


  • The boat is made with the materials collected from the State with sitting capacity of 20 - 30 people.
  • With the boat՚s help BSD scientists successfully extracted alcohol from a particular grass found in the lake and are in the process for commercializing.

Loktak Lake

  • Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India and is famous for the phumdis (heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil, and organic matter at various stages of decomposition) floating over it.
  • The lake is located near Moirang in Manipur state.
  • The largest of all the phumdis covers an area of 40 km2 and is situated on the southeastern shore of the lake.
  • Located on this phumdi, Keibul Lamjao National Park is the only floating national park in the world.
  • The park is the last natural refuge of the endangered Sangai (state animal) , Rucervus eldii eldii or Manipur brown-antlered deer (Cervus eldi eldi) , one of three subspecies of Eld՚s deer.
  • Lake is also a source of livelihood for the rural anglers who live in the surrounding areas and on phumdis, also known as “phumshongs” .

What Are Dark Net and Golden Cresent? Narco-Terrorism in India

Narco-terrorism & its funding is serious problem for World, especially for India. The challenge for law enforcement agencies & society is to prevent drug abuse from youth. Problem of Drug Trafficking assumes importance for India as it lies in ′ Golden Cresent ′ & Golden Triangle ′ as transit route for drug mafia.

Steps to Curb Drug Trafficking

  • Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) is sharing intelligence information with other agencies of world in tackling drug trafficking.
  • Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment gives 90 % financial aid to NGOs & Social Organizations for creating awareness among youth against drug abuse & rehabilitation of drug victims & training centres.
  • Minister of State of Home Affairs inaugurated 1st National Conference on Drug Law Enforcement. Conference was organized by NCB More than 50 State & Central law enforcement agencies are participating in this conference. Topics focused in the Conference are:
  • Wider context of drug trafficking in India
  • Financial Investigations
  • Foreign & Cyber Investigations

Dark NET

  • Dark marketplaces sell illicit goods anonymously for other currencies such as Bitcoins. When companies are hacked and their data is stolen, that stolen data ends up being sold on Darknet.
  • Darknet refers to networks, which are not indexed by search engines as Google, Yahoo or Bing.
  • Darknet was coined in 1970s to refer computer networks, isolated from ARPANET for obvious security reasons.
  • Purpose of Darknet is use for illegal file sharing, which includes copyright media, pirated software, malware programs & illicit content.
  • Another purpose is to provide venue for private communication when public communication is undesirable, dangerous or not permitted
  • Darknets are used in network security testing.

Drug Trafficking

  • Drug Trafficking is global illicit trade involving cultivation, manufacture, distribution & sale of substance, which are subject to drug prohibition laws.
  • Substance of drugs like marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines causes drug trafficking.
  • Largest producers of heroin & hashish - Golden Triangle & Golden Crescent - has made India՚s border vulnerable to drug trafficking.
  • Trafficking of drugs takes place overwhelmingly thru land borders followed by sea & air routes.

Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules for Protection of Human Health

Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016 was amended by Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change. Amendment Rules shall come into force Bio-Medical Waste management Rules, 2018.

Aims of New Rules

  • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016 are amended for protection of environment & human health from infectious bio-medical waste.
  • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016 are amended to improve compliance & strengthen implementation of environmentally sound management of biomedical waste in India.

Salient Features of Bio-Medical Waste Management (Amendment) Rules, 2018:

  • Bio-medical waste generators will have to phase out chlorinated plastic bags & gloves by March 27,2019. Blood bags are exempted for phase-out, as per the amended BMW rules, 2018.
  • All healthcare facilities shall make available the annual report on its website within a period of two years from the date of publication of Amended Rules 2018.
  • Operators of common bio-medical waste treatment and disposal facilities shall establish bar coding and global positioning system for handling of bio-medical waste in accordance with guidelines issued by the Central Pollution Control Board by March 27,2019.
  • State Pollution Control Boards have to compile, review and analyze the information received and send information to the Central Pollution Control Board in a new Form, which seeks detailed information regarding district-wise bio-medical waste generation, information on Health Care Facilities having captive treatment facilities, information on common bio-medical waste treatment and disposal facilities.
  • Every occupier, i.e.. a person having administrative control over the institution and the premises generating biomedical waste shall pre-treat the laboratory waste, microbiological waste, blood samples, and blood bags thru disinfection or sterilization on-site in the manner as prescribed by the WHO or guidelines on safe management of wastes from health care activities and WHO Blue Book 2014 and then sent to the Common bio-medical waste treatment facility for final disposal.

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