Expected Questions in Political Science (Part 1)

⪻ Articles ⪼

Leninism and Marxism - Who is Vladimir Lenin? :- Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov or Lenin was Russian communist revolutionary, politician & political theorist. He served as head of govt. of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 & of Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924.

  • Under his administration, Russia & then wider Soviet Union became one-party communist state, governed by the Russian Communist Party.
  • Ideologically Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism.
  • He was succeeded by Joseph Stalin.

What is Leninism?

  • Leninism comprises socialist political & economic theories, developed from Marxism & Lenin՚s interpretations of Marxist theories, for practical application to socio-political conditions of Russian Empire of early 20th century.
  • Derived from communism, Leninism evolved after October Revolution in 1917 in Russia.
  • It was followed by revolutionary vanguard party.

What is Marxist Ideology?

  • Marxism is system of thought developed by Karl Marx & Friedrich Engles doctrines that class struggle is main agency of historical change & capitalism will inevitably be suppressed by socialist order & classless society (1895 - 1900) .
  • Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels popularized communism in their book Communist Manifesto.

Bolshevik Revolution or October Revolution (Making of World՚s 1st Communist State)

  • On 24th & 25th October (Julian calendar) , leftist revolutionaries led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin launched bloodless coup against Duma՚s provisional govt. assembled by group of leaders from Russia՚s bourgeois capitalist class.
  • Lenin wanted Soviet govt. ruled directly by councils of soldiers, peasants, & workers.

Electoral Bearer Bond Scheme 2018

  • GoI notified Electoral Bond Scheme 2018.
  • Electoral Bonds may be purchased by person, who is citizen of India or incorporated or established in India.
Electoral Bearer Bond Scheme 2018
  • SBI is authorised to issue & encash Electoral Bonds initially at its 4 Authorised Branches.
  • 1st issue of Scheme opened in March 2018 in place of January 2018 for 1st quarter of 2018.
Benefits of Electocal
  • 1st sale of Electoral Bonds commenced from 1st March 2018 for 10 days i.e.. up to 10th March 2018.
  • For more details about electoral bond refer the below link: Information about Poll Bonds

Impeaching Chief Justice of India

  • In unprecedented move, 7 opposition parties submitted notice to Rajya Sabha Chairman requesting impeachment proceedings against Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra. There were
  • 6 previous instances when this was done:
  • SK Gangele: Allegations of sexual misconduct.
  • CV Nagarjuna Reddy: Impeachment motion initiated on alleged grounds of casteist acts.
  • Soumitra Sen: Impeachment proceedings have been taken for cited misappropriation of public funds.
  • PD Dinakaran: Proceedings initiated for alleged judicial misconduct met with success up to the point of the constitution of an Inquiry Committee
  • JB Pardiwala: He made certain ‘casteist’ remarks against reservation in a judgment.
  • V Ramaswami: 1st judge against whom impeachment was initiated, in 1993. He was accused of spending extravagantly on renovating his official home during his tenure as Chief Justice of Punjab & Haryana.

Procedure to Impeach Chief Justice of India

  • CJI remains in office until age of 65 years, unless he or she is impeached on grounds of misbehavior or incapacity.
  • Constitution, along w/Judges (Inquiry) Act, 1968 & Judges (Inquiry) Rules, 1969, provides for entire process of Impeachment.
  • Article 124 (4) of Constitution says: “Judge of SC shall not be removed from his office except by order of President passed after address by each House of Parliament supported by majority of total membership of that House & by majority of not less than 2 ⁄ 3rd of members of that House present & voting is presented to President in same session for such removal on ground of proved misbehaviour incapacity.”
  • The process is stated when
  • At least 100 members of Lok Sabha may give signed notice to Speaker
  • At least 50 members of Rajya Sabha may give signed notice to Chairman
  • If report records finding of misbehaviour or incapacity, motion for removal will be taken up for consideration & debated. Motion for removal is required to be adopted by each House of Parliament by
  • Majority of total membership of that House,
  • Majority of at least 2 ⁄ 3rd of members of that House present & voting.

What is Impeachment?

  • Impeachment was 1st used in British political system.
  • In India president, judges including chief justice of Supreme Court & high courts can be impeached by parliament before expiry of term for violation of Constitution.

What is Master of Roster? Supreme Court Upholds Chief Justice of India as ‘MOR’

  • SC ruled that CJI is ‘Master of Roster’ who has authority to decide on allocation of cases. Bench heard petition despite 2 separate judgments by SC in November 2017 & April 2018, upholding CJI՚s complete administrative authority to allocate cases & constitute Benches.

Meaning of ‘Master of Roster’

  • ‘Master of Roster’ refers to privilege of CJI to constitute & allocate benches to hear cases. CJI has absolute discretion in matter of distribution of judicial work among judges of his court.
  • Chief Justice Dipak Misra, declared that “Chief Justice is master of roster & he alone has prerogative to constitute Benches of Court & allocate cases to Benches so constituted.”


  • ‘Chief Justice of India’ is individual judge & not powerful collective of 5 senior-most judges (Collegium) of SC. It is exclusive authority of CJI to allocate cases to fellow judges as ‘Master of Roster’ .
  • CJI is only ′ 1st among equals ′ in his judicial functions on Bench. Opinion of CJI on Bench carries same weight as any other member of Bench.
  • Interference in CJI՚s authority as master of roster would pose interrupt duty & authority of Chief Justice to constitute benches & to allocate cases to them.
  • Every judge appointed to top court under Article 124 of Constitution is invested w/equal duty of adjudicating cases assigned by Chief Justice.
  • Ruling came on plea seeking direction for separate division of court
  • It petitioned pleading to have collegium of Supreme Court judges collectively allocating cases rather than leaving entire power in hands of CJI in his administrative capacity as ‘Master of Roster’ .

What is Section 377 of India Penal Code

  • SC made hearing on Section 377 of Indian Penal Code, which criminalises homosexual acts. Section 377 IPC denies person՚s dignity & criminalises his or her core identity solely on account of his or her sexuality & thus violates Article 21 of Constitution.

What is Section 377?

  • Chapter XVI, Section 377 of Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860 was introduced during British rule of India.
  • It criminalizes sexual activities “against order of nature.” It says whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against order of nature w/any man; woman or animal shall be punished w/imprisonment for life, or w/imprisonment of either description for term which may extend to 10 years, & shall be liable to fine.

The Beginning of Movement for Homosexuality in India

  • Movement to repeal Section 377 was initiated by AIDS Bhedbhav Virodhi Andolan in 1991. As case prolonged over years, it was revived in next decade, led by Naz Foundation (India) Trust.

Background: Delhi High Court Historical Judgment

  • In historic judgement delivered on 2nd July 2009, Delhi High Court overturned 150-year-old section there by legalizing consensual homosexual activities b/w adults.
  • Court clarified that “provisions of Section 377 will continue to govern non-consensual penile non-vaginal sex & penile non-vaginal sex involving minors.”

Background: Supreme Court՚s December 2013 Judgment

  • Govt. filed review petition on 21st December 2013 stating that judgement was violating rights under article 14,15 & 21 of Constitution.
  • Naz Foundation filed review petition against SC order on Section 377.
  • SC dismissed review petition on 28 January 2014. Petitions were dismissed on ground that Section 377 is Constitutional & applies to sexual acts irrespective of age or consent of parties.

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