NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries

Economic Strength is Measured by Manufacturing

Economics Strength Is Measured By Manufacturing For Geography

Economics Strength is Measured by Manufacturing

Economics Strength Is Measured By Manufacturing For Geography

Factors Affecting Industrial Location

Factors Affecting Industrial Location For Geography Image - 2

Factors Affecting Industrial Location

Factors Affecting Industrial Location For Geography Image - 2

Classification of Industries

Based on

  • Raw Material: Agro-based, mineral based

  • Role: Key/Main, consumer

  • Investment: Small scale, cottage or large scale

  • Ownership: Private, public, joint or cooperatives

  • Weight: Heavy or light

Textile Industry

  • 14% of industrial prod.

  • 35 million people employed (next to agriculture)

  • 24% foreign exchange earning

  • 4% to GDP

  • Cotton mills (1st in 1854 - Mumbai) now 1962 mills with 80% in private – handloom, powerloom

  • Previously – Maharashtra & Gujarat (cotton, mkt. & port)

  • Spinning (Maha, Guj & T. Nadu); weaving (khadi-charkha) decentralized

  • Export yarn – Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka

  • 2nd largest spindles next to China

Textile Industry

  • 14% of industrial prod.

  • 35 million people employed (next to agriculture)

  • 24% foreign exchange earning

  • 4% to GDP

  • Cotton mills (1st in 1854 - Mumbai) now 1962 mills with 80% in private – handloom, powerloom

  • Previously – Maharashtra & Gujarat (cotton, mkt. & port)

  • Spinning (Maha, Guj & T. Nadu); weaving (khadi-charkha) decentralized

  • Export yarn – Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka

  • 2nd largest spindles next to China

Jute Industry

  • Largest producer of jute and jute goods

  • 2nd exporter after Bangladesh

  • Most mills in W. Bengal – Hugli river (1st at Rishra)

  • Partition – mills in India, production in Bangladesh

  • Why good location? Inexpensive water, cheap labour, producing areas, transport network, banking and insurance

  • Support 2.6 lakh directly & 40 lakh indirectly

  • Competition with synthetic fiber

  • 2005- National Jute Policy

  • Mkt- U.S.A., Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, U.K. and Australia

  • Env. Friendly and biodegradable

Sugar Industry – Gur & Khandsari

  • RM – bulky

  • Transport reduces sucrose

  • 60% in UP & Bihar

  • Shifting to south & west – Maharashtra – higher sucrose, cooperatives & cool climate for long crushing season

Iron & Steel Industry

  • Production & consumption is index of development

  • Iron : coking coal : manganese = 4:2:1

  • 2016 – India 4th in crude oil production

  • Largest producer of sponge iron

  • Per capita consumption was 32 kg

  • China- largest producer & consumer

  • Max. conc. in Chotanagpur plateau (high grade,

    Cheap labor, low cost)

  • Poor performance – low productivity, erratic power,

    High cost of coking coal, poor infrastructure

Iron And Steel Industry For Geography

Iron and Steel Industry

Iron And Steel Industry For Geography

Aluminum Industry

  • 2nd after iron and steel

  • Light

  • Resistant to corrosion

  • Good conductor

  • Malleable

  • Strong when mixed with other metals

  • Bauxite – RM – bulky & red

  • 8 plants – NALCO & BALCO (W. Bengal), Kerala, UP, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, T. Nadu

Chemical Industry

  • 3% of GDP

  • 3rd largest in Asia

  • 12th in world

  • Inorganic – H2SO4, synthetic fiber, soda ash, alkalies, soap, detergent

  • Organic: Petrochemical, rubber, plastic, dyes, pharma, drugs

Fertilizer Industry

  • NPK

  • Potash is imported

  • 3rd largest in nitrogenous fertilizer in world

  • 10 PSU & 1 cooperative (Hazira, Gujarat)

  • Green revolution & land degradation

  • Neem coated Urea – slow dissolution

Cement Industry

  • 1st in 1904 – Chennai

  • Expanded after 1989 – decontrol of price & distribution

  • Large & mini-plants

  • Construction

  • Meet local demands

Automobile Industry

  • Jump in 15 years

  • FDI

  • Delhi, Jamshedpur, Pune, Indore, Hyderabad, Bangalore

ICT – Software parks, BPOs

Industrial Pollution

  • Air pollution – smoke, toxic gases (Bhopal gas tragedy)

  • Noise pollution

  • Thermal pollution – hot water in rivers, birth defects & cancers (effluents)

  • Water pollution – discharge in rivers

Control of Pollution

  • 1 liter discharge pollute 8 times quantity of fresh water

  • Reuse & recycle water

  • Harvest rainwater

  • Treat effluents going in water

  • Treatment types

    • Primary: mechanical – grinding, sedimentation

    • Secondary: biological

    • Tertiary: recycle waste water

  • Overdrawing of ground water – to be regulated (energy efficiency)

  • NTPC – ISO EMS 14001 – proactive approach preserve env., minimize waste, green belts, decrease pollution & monitoring