Deductive (Positivist) & Inductive (Interpretivist) Approach: Theory of Gravitation and Relativity

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for UGC Library-Science: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention, fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation- practice your way to success, Get full length tests using official NTA interface: all topics with exact weightage, real exam experience, detailed analytics, comparison and rankings, & questions with full solutions.

Deductive & Inductive


  • Scientific, or positivist, approach to research
  • Hypothesis-testing approach to research
  • first two statements are the premises and include a general and a specific statement. The third statement, or conclusion, is specific
  • Positivist researchers often deduce hypotheses from the literature for testing in their studies
  • narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses


  • Interpretivist approaches.
  • Associated with the generation of hypotheses and also of theory of a more complex nature
  • field work and observations occur initially and hypotheses, or theory, are developed
  • open-ended and exploratory
Deductive & Inductive


  • People who are aged 60 and over are less likely than younger people to be users of the internet.
  • ABC is aged 75.
  • Therefore, ABC is less likely than someone aged XYZ to be a user of the internet.


  • ABC and friends, who are all aged 60 and over, are not users of the internet
  • People who are aged 60 and over are unlikely to be users of the internet

Inductive Approach

Theory of Gravitation

  • Theory
  • Hypothesis
  • Pattern
  • Observation
  • Everything Falls Due to Gravity
  • Falling Down
  • Inductive approach is totally reverse form deductive approach observation, pattern, tentative hypothesis and theory
  • Bottom Up Approach
  • Moon Revolves around Earth due to Gravity
  • Path of Moon
  • Forces on Moon
  • Moon revolves
  • Force of Gravity = Centrifugal Force
  • Deductive approach are development of theory, hypothesis, observation through data and information and confirmation.
  • Top down approach

Theory of Relativity

  • Nuclear Reactor
  • Mass in converted to energy in nuclear reactors

Generally, studies using deductive approach follow the following stages:

  • Deducing hypothesis from theory.
  • Formulating hypothesis in operational terms and proposing relationships between two specific variables
  • Testing hypothesis with the application of relevant method (s) . These are quantitative methods such as regression and correlation analysis, mean, mode and median and others.
  • Examining the outcome of the test, and thus confirming or rejecting the theory. When analysing the outcome of tests, it is important to compare research findings with the literature review findings.
  • Modifying theory in instances when hypothesis is not confirmed.

Developed by: