# NTE Praxis: Statistics Glossary R to Z

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## Statistics Glossary: R to Z

• Random Error: Error that occur as a result of sampling variability.
• Random Sampling: It is the selection of individuals from the population in such a way that each individual of the population has the same chance of being selected i.e.. . a sample so selected must be a true representative of its population. This process of sampling is called random sampling.
• Range: The difference between the largest and the smallest value of a set.
• Region of acceptance: It is the area under a probability curve, in which a computed test statistics will lead to the acceptance of the null hypothesis.
• Region of Rejection: Area under the probability (normal) curve in which a computed test statistics will lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis.
• Regression: The estimation of the linear dependent of one or more independent variables on a dependent variable.
• Relative frequency: The ratio of a class frequency to the total frequency.
• Research Hypothesis: The expectation or prediction, that is to be tested by a researchers.
• Residual: The vertical distance (deviation) between a pre-assigned value of y and its actual value.
• Sample: A finite set of objects, drawn from the population with the aim that it represents the population.
• Sampling Distribution: The distribution obtained by computing a statistic for a large number of sample drawn from the same sample population.
• Scatter Diagram: If a graphic display used to explain the degree of correlation between two variables, by the means of points or dots.
• Skewed: A distribution displayed at one end of the scale with its tail strung out at the other end.
• Standard-Deviation: It is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the square of deviations of various values from their arithmetic mean.
• Standard error: A measure of variation in random of a statistic standardize the conversion into a z-score.
• Statistical Significance: The probability of obtaining a given result by chance.
• Sample space: The totality of all outcomes as a result of a random experiment.
• Statistic: It is a branch of mathematics that describes the aggregate of facts, affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, in numerated as estimated according to reasonable standard accuracy, collected in a systematic manner for a pre-determined purpose and placed in a relationship to each other.
• Symmetric: A shape in which one side is the mirror image of other.
• Systematic Error: The consistency in under-estimating or over-estimating a true value.
• T-Distribution: A probability distribution used when the standard deviation of the population is unknown and the sample size is small.
• Test statistic: A computed statistic value used to decide a hypothesis test.
• Two-Tail-Test: A state of predictions that indicate whether the two values are equal or not equal.
• Type-I-Error (a Error) : Rejecting a null-hypothesis when it is true.
• Type-II-Error (b Error) : Failing to reject the null-hypothesis when it is false.
• Trial: A procedure or an experiment to collect any statistical data.
• Upper Quartile (Q3) : The 75th percentile of the set of observation.
• Unbiased Estimator: The expected value of statistic which is equal to the corresponding population parameter.
• Variable: As observed characteristic of phenomenon which is to be studied.
• Variance: The square of the standard deviation of the score about the mean distribution.
• Z-score: The standardized normal variates which are obtained by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation.

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