PRAXIS II Special Education: Teaching Students with Mental Retardation Exam
The exam is aimed for those individuals who wants to teach mentally retarded students from preschool through grade 12. One hour will be provided, to complete 50 multiple choice questions. There will be 39 questions pertaining to service delivery to mentally retarded students and 11 questions pertaining to factors influencing the education of mentally retarded students.
- Service Delivery to Mentally Retarded Students: This section will focus on the management of the learning environment, curriculum and instruction, programming and placement, assessment, professional roles and conceptual approaches. The learning environment management questions will focus on documentation and communication with parents and other professionals, student transitions between activities, grouping students and, organization of the physical and social learning environment. Questions pertaining to the usage of behavioral intervention, data collection, behavior management and behavior analysis will be covered in this section. Physical and social learning environment questions will cover attitudes, seating, lighting, expectations, consistency, rules, consequences, and positive interaction strategies. The behavior management questions will cover behavioral analysis and behavioral interventions. Behavioral analysis questions will cover target behavior, consequent events, and identification of antecedents. Behavioral intervention questions will cover dealing with changing behaviors and the degree of intervention required to change the behavior. Questions pertaining to curriculum and instruction will cover appropriate areas of instruction, instructional formats, and selection of appropriate teaching strategies. Your knowledge of gender, cultural, and linguistic differences, modification and usage of adaptive equipment, volunteers, and other professionals will be included in this section of the exam. Questions pertaining to student assessment, effective data collection, preparation of the IEP, methods for evaluation and grading, and positive reinforcement strategies will be there. Student assessment on cultural and community influences, access to assistive technology, family participation in the educational process, cultural differences, student placement and programming issues. Questions pertaining to mainstreaming, inclusion, modification of student assessments and IEP/ITP development will be covered in this section. Professional role questions will cover working with social and health-related service providers; the use of professional organizations and literature to improve teaching skills, impact of teacher attitude on student achievement, teacher responsibility in cases of suspected neglect or abuse, promoting student and parent advocacy and impacting public attitude toward mentally retarded individuals. The questions pertaining to conceptual approaches will include sociological, cognitive, psychodynamic and medical service delivery for mentally retarded students.
- Factors that Impact the Education of Mentally Retarded Students: This section will focus on the terminology pertaining to concepts that influence the learning of mentally retarded individuals. The terminology questions will include professional organizations such as IDEA, AAMR, CEC, etc. Questions pertaining to fundamental concepts will cover the prevention and causes of mental retardation such as genetics, environment, culture and neurological factors. Your knowledge of the classification of mentally retarded students including race, gender, degrees of severity and limitations of standardized testing will be tested in this section. The family and personal living skills questions will include self care, dependence, sexuality and motivation. The language and physical development questions will cover physical development, motor skills and communication skills. Questions pertaining to affective behavior will cover self-concept, self-esteem, interpersonal skills and resistance to changes. Learning deficits questions will include memory, generalization, abstract thinking as well as maintaining skills.