Fundamental Technical Terms in Psychology for NTE Praxis

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  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Festinger

  • Thurstone: Equal Appearing Scale

  • Likert: Summated Ratings Scale

  • Bogardus: Social Distance Scale

  • Guttman: Scalogram

  • Osgood: Semantic Differential Techniques

  • Adorno: F-Scale

  • Spranger: Types of Man and 6 Types of Values

  • Balance Theory (Attitude): Heider and Newcomb

  • Congruity Theory (Attitude): Osgood and Tannenbaum

  • Marijuana is called as Cannabis Sativa

  • Delta Waves: Deep Sleep

  • In Stage I of Sleep There are No Alpha Waves

  • Shift of vision from cones to rods is Called as Purkinje Phenomena

  • Visual Apparatus arise when body of the pilot is in rotation with aircraft and is called as Coriolis Phenomena

  • Cell Assembly Phase Sequence Theory (Perception): Hebb

  • Adaption Level Theory (Perception): Helson

  • Motor Adjustment Level Theory: Freeman

  • Sensory Tonic Field Level Theory: Werner and Wapner

  • Attribution: Process of Making Inferences about the Traits

  • Validity Measures what it is Made for and is of 4 Types as Content, Predictive, Concurrent and Construct

  • Reliability Tests Consistency

  • DSM is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by American Psychiatric Association

  • Types of Behavior Modification:

    • Flooding: at Random and at Once

    • Systematic Desensitization: Slow and Gradual

    • Exposure and Response: Need to Protect

    • Relaxation: Do it Easy and do not worry

    • Anxiety: Gaba

    • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Serotonin

    • Phobia: Given Beta Blockers as Medication

    • Kleptomania: Steal Meaningless Things

    • Fetishism: Worship God

    • Dissociative Hysteria is More Serious and Personality Disintegration Occurs

    • Broca’s Area in Brain: Motor Speech and Expression and Fluency

    • Wernike’s Area: Sensory Speech and Comprehension and Temporal Lobe

    • Physical to Nervous Energy is Called as Transduction

    • Mutism: Know what to Say but cannot Say

    • Ambivalence: Inability to Decide for or Against

    • Von Domarus Law: Lord Ram is Hindu, I Am Hindu so I Am Lord Ram

    • Psycho-Cybernetic Imagery: Use imagination to create vivid images

    • Krutchfield Described Leadership as Authoritarian and Democratic

    • Anosmia: Loss of Smell

    • Anopia: Loss of Sight

    • Analgesia: Loss of Pain

    • Astasia: Loss of Walking

    • Anacusia: Loss of Hearing

    • Type A Personality: Restless and Achieving, Sustained aggression, Ambition, Competitiveness, Urgency, Impatience

    • Type B Personality: Less Motivated

    • Somnambulism: Walk in Sleep

    • Neurasthenia: Excessive Fatigue

    • Emotional Wheel by Plutchik

    • Level of Aspiration by Dembo, 1931

    • Alienation: Detachment from Self and Society

    • Apathy: Void of Emotions

    • Transformational Generative Grammar Concept by Chomsky

    • Important Concepts Emphasized by Psychologists:

    • Jung: Unconsciousness (Neo-Freudian)

    • Alder: Individual or Perfection (Neo-Freudian)

    • Horney: Environmental (Neo-Freudian)

    • Fromm: Success and Failure of Society (Neo-Freudian)

    • Erikson: Social Interaction (Neo-Freudian)

    • Reinforcement Learning: Dollard and Miller

    • Social Learning: Bandura and Walters

    • Client Centered Therapy: Rogers

    • Rational Emotive Psychotherapy: Albert Ellis

    • Primal Therapy: A.V. Janov: Recollection of Painful Experiences

    • Logotherapy: V. E. Frankl: Spiritual Aspect: Paradoxical Intention

    • Psychodrama: Moreno

    • Transactional Analysis: Berne

    • Crisis Therapy: Caplan

    • Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Klerman

    • Relaxation Therapy: Jacobson

    • Assertive Training: Wolpe

    • Term Behavior Therapy by Eysenck

    • Halo Effect: Answer is Chosen to Fit Previously Chosen Answers and Response Become what is Expected by Observer

    • Hawthorne Effect: Researchers Alter the Situations by Their Presence

    • IQ was Proposed by Stern and Ratio IQ by Terman

    • Term Projective Test Given by L.K. Frank

    • TAT: Thematic Appreciation Test by Morgan and Murray

    • Rorschach Test by Swiss Hermann Rorschach

    • Hypnosis: Suggestions Given to the Subjects Who Begin to Work Accordingly

    • First Formal Psychological Laboratory in USA at John Hopkins University in 1883

    • Classical Conditioning (S Type): Pavlov

    • Positive Reinforcement: Thorndike

    • Operant Conditioning (R Type): Skinner

    • Insight Theory: Kohler

    • Pavlov Was Awarded Nobel Prize in 1904 for His Research on Digestive Glands

    • Human Brain has 150 Billion Neurons

    • Hysteria is Associated with Tics

    • Schizophrenia is Associated with Split Personality

    • Tolman: Cognitive Learning

    • Programmed Learning: Pressey

    • Probability Learning: Brunswik

    • Neurons: Afferent or Sensory are Body to Spinal Cord

    • Efferent or Motor are Spinal Cord to Body

    • Swift Potential Difference = Spike Potential

    • Depolarization = All or None Law

    • Left and Right Hemisphere are Connected by Corpus Callosum

    • Medulla Oblongata: Body Balancing, Respiratory, Circulation and Reflex

    • Anterior Hypothalamus: Parasympathetic: Temperature and Motivation and is Relaxed

    • Posterior Hypothalamus: Sympathetic: Control Carbohydrate, Fat and Water and is Aroused

    • Monocular Cues: Each Eye Can See Independent of Each Other

    • Binocular Cues: Both Eyes Focus to See a Common Object

    • Empathy Theory of Illusion: Lipps

    • Eye Movement Theory of Illusion: Cohen and Festinger

    • Prejudice: Preconceived attitude towards some object or individual and is part of affective behavior

    • Stereotype: Term by Lipman: cause false classification attached to like and dislikes and is cognitive behavior

    • Catharsis: Relieving of emotions by any means including yelling or crying

    • Endogamy: Member of a Caste Marry among Themselves

    • Queuing: Delaying information processing during peak periods

    • Discrimination is a Behavioral Aspect

    • Zullner Illusion: 4 Lines are Parallel but do not look so

    • Poggendorff Illusion: The vertical lines cutting the 2 parallel horizontal lines are two in number but looks like one

    • Ebbinghaus: Forgetting Curve: Discovered speed of learning and speed of forgetting

    • Descartes: 1st Psychologist of Modern Psychology of 17th Century

    • Aristotle: Primary Law of Associations

    • British Empiricists and Association: Hume, Hartley and Mill

    • John Locke: Radial Environment: Tabula Rasa

    • Wundt: 1st Psychology Laboratory in the World 1879 at Lipzing University in Germany on sensation and introspection

    • Binet and Simon in France: Intelligence Test

    • Galton: Mental Measurements and Individual Differences

    • Oswald Kulpe: 1896: Established Psychology Laboratory at Wurzburg to study complex phenomena of thinking, memory and judgment

    • Overt Behavior: As Observed by Others

    • Covert Behavior: As Within Individual

    • Hormic or Purposive: William Mac Dougall: Inspiration and Instinct

    • 1st Psychology Laboratory in India at Calcutta University in 1916 by Dr. N.N. Sengupta

    • 1924: Spearman’s Student M.V. Gopalswami Established Psychology Laboratory in Mysore University

    • 1925: Indian Science Congress Considered it in Yearly Conference

    • 1926: Indian Journal of Psychology

    • 1942: Journal of Education and Psychology

    • 1922: Indian Psychiatric Association and 1947 Started the Journal ‘Samiksha

    • For 1st Time in India C.H. Rice Developed Indian Adaptation of Binet Performance

    • Structuralism: By Wundt and His Student Titchner at Cornell University: Introspection and Self-Observation

    • Functionalism: William James, Dewey (Reflex Arc Concept), Dynamic Psychology

    • Behaviorism: by J.B. Watson

    • Gestalt: 1912 Germany by Kohler, Koffa and Wertheimer: Wholeness Concept

    • Cones in Eyes: Daytime Light

    • Rods in Eyes: Night Time Vision

    • Left Hemisphere of Brain: Analytical, Logical, Mathematical, Cause and Effect and Language Areas

    • Right Hemisphere of Brain: Images, Sensory Input, Synthesis of Information, Artist, Composer, Recognition and Spatial Ability

    • Visual Area: Occipital Lobe

    • Hearing and Taste: Temporal Lobe

    • Touch, Pain and Pressure: Parietal Lobe

    • Placebo: Pharmacologically Inactive but Told to have Desired Effect

    • Camouflage Works because it Breaks up the Contours

    • Operant Conditioning: Shaping

    • Classical Conditioning: Auto-Shaping

    • Reconstruction: Confabulation

    • Sympathetic Nervous System: Noradrenaline: Accelerate All

    • Parasympathetic Nervous System: Acetylcholine: Work opposite to Sympathetic Nervous System

    • Information Processing Theory: Atkinson-Shiffrin

    • Heavy Drinking Leads to Brain Damage: Korsaff Syndrome

    • Linguistics: Study of Language

    • Psycholinguistics: Use Language to Understand and Generate

    • Opponent Process Theory: Hedonistic View

    • Machiavellianism by Machiavelli: Advice to Rulers to Maintain Power

    • Lie Detector: Polygraph

    • Freud: Interpretation of Dreams

    • Non Parametric Tests: Chi Square Test

    • Positive Skewness: Mean is Maximum and Mode is Minimum

    • Dispersion: Amount of Variation

    • Skewness: Direction of Variation

    • 1st Moment by Origin: Mean

    • 2nd Moment by Origin: Variance

    • 3rd Moment by Origin: Skewness

    • 4th Moment by Origin: Kurtosis (Flatness-Platykurtic and Peakedness-Leptokurtic)

  • Rank Correlation in Psychology by Spearman: 1904

  • F-Test by Fisher: Find out whether two independent estimates of population variance differ significantly

  • ANOVA: Analysis of Variance: Fischer: To test whether means of more than two quantitative populations are equal and based on the assumptions of Normality, Homogeneity, and Independence of Error.

  • Inductive: Factual and Deductive: Based on Assumptions

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