Notes on Classical Music Hindustani and Carnatic for NTSE

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Classical Music

Classical Music

Sub Styles under Hindustani Classical

  • Dhrupada
  • Khayal
  • Dhammar
  • Thumri
  • Tarana
  • tappa

(1) Dhrupad

  • Mother of all sub styles.
  • Vedic origin
  • Developed in temples
  • Pronouncing mantras in proper tone
  • Performance of dhrupad-aalap and Bandish
  • Systematic arrangements of musical parts
  • Theme Religion, philosophy, devotion, celebration of seasons
  • Promoted by Rja Mansingh Tomar of Gwalior
  • Akbar also made it popular through Haridas, Tansen and Baiju Bawra
4 Gharanas under Dhrupad Style
  • Dagar Gharana
  • Also known as Jaipur gharana
  • Related to Dagri Bani
  • Gundecha brothers, Haridas, Behram Khan
  • Darbhanga Gharana
  • Bihar
  • Related to gauhar bani
  • Founder-kartaram
  • Malik family
  • Betiah Gharana
  • bihar
  • Related to Khandar bani
  • Hyder khan
  • Talwandi gharana
  • Punjab
  • Related to Nauhari bani

(2) Khayal

  • Khayal means an idea, thought or imagination
  • More free and flowery
  • Theme divine love, separation of lovers, pranks of lord Krishna
  • Lyrics ornamental
  • More words are used
  • Use of taan tempo
  • Performance of khayal on the base of tempo
  • Bada khayal
  • Chhota khayal
4 Ghranas under Khayal Style
  • Gwalior gharana
  • Oldest
  • Vishnu palushkar-famous song-raghupati raghav raja ram
  • Kirana gharana
  • Kurukshetra, Haryana
  • Pt. Bheemsen Joshi, Gangubai
  • Patiala gharana
  • Rhythm is important
  • Focus on emotions
  • Founder-ustad bade gulam ali khan
  • Begum Akhtar, Naina devi
  • Agra Gharana
  • Also known as Rangeela Gharana
  • Importance of raga
  • Vijay Kichlu, C. R. vyas

(3) Dhammar Style

  • Dhammar taal
  • beats irregular beat
  • More freedom
  • Theme erotic, Krishna, festsivals etc.

(4) Thumri Style

  • Mixed ragas
  • Use of light and romantic words
  • Theme-romantic
  • Songs sung in BRAJ BHASHA
  • 2 types
  • Purbi thumri
  • Punjabi thumri

(5) Tarana Style

  • Rhythm is important
  • No meaning words
  • Fast tempo
  • Emphasis on producing rhythm
  • Requires specialization and skill for rythemic manipulation

(6) Tappa Style

  • Punjab
  • Initially sug by camel drivers of north-west
  • Very quick phrases are used.
  • Short taan, without much elaboration
  • The style is getting extinct.
  • Artist Miyah Sodi

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