Vedic Literature-Tvasta and Ritvij

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Tvasta: First Distributors

  • According to Sayana, who has written commentary on Rig Veda: Saneru means distribution or Sambhaktra; Sanugi was woman distributor; vajasati mentioned distribution of foods

  • Asvins used to protect from wolf (vrka)

  • Parivesaka was the distributor of food in Atharvaveda

  • Vrata means custom and conduct, it also means race called Panchavrata

  • Khadira or Khair also called Kattha was commonly found.

  • Babul most common.

  • Simsapa mentioned in Atharvaveda.

  • Skandhavaras means military camps

  • Atranjikhera, Hastinapur were Painted Grey Ware sites.

  • 7 types of brick found in Taittiriya samhita, 9 in Kathaka samhita, 11 in Maitrayani samhita

  • Royal share was 1/12 to 1/ 10 of the produce.

  • According to Gautama royal share in me beginning was 1/12 but gradually reduced to l/6m.

  • Vaisya were mostly agriculturist called Balihrt or Balikrt.

  • Ananyasukham (indebtedness), Jumgita (untouchables), Aghnya (not to be killed),


  • Specialists who participated in the yajna and helped in its completion

  • There were four types of Ritvij each for the four Vedas:

    1. Hotra◊ Rigveda

    2. Adhvaryu◊ Yajurveda

    3. Udgatra◊ Samveda

    4. Brahmana◊ Atharvaveda

  • First convert to monasticism were 5 persons called the Panchvargiya bhikshu who converted and formed the basis of monks :

    1. Yasa, first

    2. Vimala

    3. Subahu

    4. Purnjina

    5. Gavampati

  • The Maruts are regarded to be sons of Rudra, but tiiey became the companions of Indra and are called Indrasakha.

  • Rig Veda has tribal character : Important heads : Caidya of Kasu,

  • Ugra and Jivagrbha (to deal with criminals), Madh-yamasi (mediator of disputes)

  • Vedas are also known as Shruti (to hear).

  • Each Veda has three parts:

  1. Samhita meaning mantra.

  2. Brahmana meaning Chapter (Each chapter deals with different people).

  3. Aryanaka meaning Appendix (Called thus as they were compiled in the forests).

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