National Science Olympiad Model Paper 1 Questions and Answers Part 6

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Q. 26. The following diagram shown below is the laboratory apparatus for fractional distillation. Which letter correctly identifies the fractionating column?

Laboratory Apparatus for Fractional Distillation

A) B

B) C

C) A

D) D

Answer: A

Explanation

Laboratory Apparatus for Fractional Distillation

Above diagram shows the fractional column clearly

Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions. Chemical compounds are separated by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the mixture will vaporize. It uses distillation to fractionate. Generally, the component parts have boiling points that differ by less than 25 °C (45 °F) from each other under a pressure of one atmosphere. If the difference in boiling points is greater than 25 °C, a simple distillation is typically used.

Q. 27 28 With regards to the phase diagram depicted above:

Phase Diagrams

Q. 27. What phase or phases are present at -10°C and 0.98atmosphere pressure?

A) liquid

B) solid

C) gas

D) an equilibrium mixture of liquid and gas

Answer: D

Explanation:

Liquid: A state of matter that consists of loose, free moving particles which form the shape set by the boundaries of the container in which the liquid is in. This happens because the motion of the individual particles within a liquid is much less restricted than in a solid. One may notice that some liquids flow readily whereas some liquids flow slowly. A liquid՚s relative resistance to flow is viscosity.

Solid: A state of matter with tightly packed particles which do not change the shape or volume of the container that it is in. However, this does not mean that the volume of a solid is a constant. Solids can expand and contract when temperatures change. This is why when you look up the density of a solid, it will indicate the temperature at which the value for density is listed. Solids have strong intermolecular forces that keep particles in close proximity to one another. Another interesting thing to think about is that all true solids have crystalline structures. This means that their particles are arranged in a three-dimensional, orderly pattern. Solids will undergo phase changes when they come across energy changes.

Gas: A state of matter where particles are spread out with no definite shape or volume. The particles of a gas will take the shape and fill the volume of the container that it is placed in. In a gas, there are no intermolecular forces holding the particles of a gas together since each particle travels at its own speed in its own direction. The particles of a gas are often separated by great distances.

Phase diagrams illustrate the variations between the states of matter of elements or compounds as they relate to pressure and temperatures. The following is an example of a phase diagram for a generic single-component system:

Phase Diagrams

Figure 1. General Phase diagram

Triple point – the point on a phase diagram at which the three states of matter: gas, liquid, and solid coexist

Critical point – the point on a phase diagram at which the substance is indistinguishable between liquid and gaseous states

Fusion (melting) (or freezing) curve – the curve on a phase diagram which represents the transition between liquid and solid states

Vaporization (or condensation) curve – the curve on a phase diagram which represents the transition between gaseous and liquid states

Sublimation (or deposition) curve – the curve on a phase diagram which represents the transition between gaseous and solid states

Phase diagrams plot pressure (typically in atmospheres) versus temperature (typically in degrees Celsius or Kelvin) . The labels on the graph represent the stable states of a system in equilibrium. The lines represent the combinations of pressures and temperatures at which two phases can exist in equilibrium. In other words, these lines define phase change points. The red line divides the solid and gas phases, represents sublimation (solid to gas) and deposition (gas to solid) . The green line divides the solid and liquid phases and represents melting (solid to liquid) and freezing (liquid to solid) . The blue divides the liquid and gas phases, represents vaporization (liquid to gas) and condensation (gas to liquid) . There are also two important points on the diagram, the triple point and the critical point. The triple point represents the combination of pressure and temperature that facilitates all phases of matter at equilibrium. The critical point terminates the liquid/gas phase line and relates to the critical pressure, the pressure above which a supercritical fluid forms.

With most substances, the temperature and pressure related to the triple point lie below standard temperature and pressure and the pressure for the critical point lies above standard pressure. Therefore, at standard pressure as temperature increases, most substances change from solid to liquid to gas, and at standard temperature as pressure increases, most substances change from gas to liquid to solid.

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