National Science Olympiad Model Paper 1 Questions and Answers Part 9

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Q. 36. The … produces red blood cells, which transport … and some …

Liver; oxygen; mineral ions

Liver; oxygen; carbon dioxide

Bone marrow; oxygen; hormones

Bone marrow; oxygen; carbon dioxide

Answer: D

Explanation:

Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells, most white blood cells, and platelets are produced in the bone marrow, the soft fatty tissue inside bone cavities. Two types of white blood cells, T and B cells (lymphocytes) , are also produced in the lymph nodes and spleen, and T cells are produced and mature in the thymus gland.

Hemoglobin is the protein inside red blood cells. It carries oxygen. Red blood cells also remove carbon dioxide from your body, transporting it to the lungs for you to exhale.

Q. 37. The factor which is required for the maturation of erythrocytes is

A) Vitamin - D

B) Vitamin - A

C) Vitamin - B12

D) Vitamin – C

Answer: C

Explanation:

Erythropoiesis a process in which new erythrocytes are produced. These new erythrocytes replace the oldest erythrocytes (normally about one percent) that are phagocytosed and destroyed each day. Folate, vitamin B12, and iron have important roles in erythropoiesis.

Erythroblasts require folate and vitamin B12 for proliferation during their differentiation. Deficiency of folate or vitamin B12 inhibits purine and thymidylate syntheses, impairs DNA synthesis, and causes erythroblast apoptosis, resulting in anemia diseases from ineffective erythropoiesis

Q. 38. Statement: The cells of given epithelium in diagram in absorptive surfaces often bears microvilli on their free ends.

Reason: Microvilli on their free ends.

Microvilli on Their Free Ends

A) If both the Statement and the reason are true and the reason is a correct explanation of the Statement

B) If both the Statement and reason are true but the reason is not a correct explanation of the Statement

C) If the Statement is true but the reason is false

D) If both the Statement and reason are false

Answer: A

Explanation:

Columnar Epithelium

The above diagram is columnar epithelium. The columnar epithelium bearing microvilli on their free ends give a brush-like appearance to these free border.

The Villus shaped microvilli increase the area of the free surface of the cell and thereby enhance absorption.

Lining of gall bladder, stomach, large intestine are the example of columnar epithelium

Q. 39. Match the names of disease listed under column I with meanings given under column II, choose the answer which gives the correct combination of the alphabets of the columns

Match the Names of Disease Listed under Column I with Meanings Given under Column II, Choose the Answer Which Gives the Correct Combination of the Alphabets of the Columns
Column I (Name of disease)Column II (Meanings)
A.JaundicepAllergic inflammation of nose
B.StenosisqLoss of muscles functions
C.RhinitisrHeart valve defect
D.ParalysissIncrease in bile pigments in the blood
tSeptal defect of heart

A) A = q; B = t; C = r; D = p

B) A = s; B = p; C = q; D = r

C) A = s; B = r; C = p; D = q

D) A = s; B = t; C = p; D = q

Answer C

Explanation:

Bilirubin is then moved through the bile ducts into the digestive tract, so that it can be eliminated from the body. Most bilirubin is eliminated in stool, but a small amount is eliminated in urine. If bilirubin cannot be moved through the liver and bile ducts quickly enough, it builds up in the blood and is deposited in the skin. The result is jaundice. So, A = s

Stenosis is the term for a heart valve that doesn՚t open properly. B = r

Rhinitis is inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane of the nose, characterized by a runny nose and stuffiness and usually caused by the common cold or a seasonal allergy. Colds and allergies are the most common causes of rhinitis. C = p

Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles.

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