Benito Mussolini, Benjamin Franklin, Bertrand Russell, Besant, Annie and Bhagat Singh

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Benito Mussolini

He was a dictator and leader of the Italian Fascists. He seized Abyssinia and helped the Spanish Fascists in the Spanish Civil War. He fought with Germany in the Second World War from June 1940. Italy was invaded by an Anglo-American army and he surrendered in 1943. Mussolini was shot by his own countrymen.

Benjamin Franklin

He was an American Politician who helped to write the American Declaration of Independence. As a scientist he made discoveries of electricity and invented the lightning conductor.

Bertrand Russell

A distinguished English Philosopher and mathematician, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. He advocated world peace and human approach to international problems. His books cover diverse subjects and some among them are “Marriage of Mathematics and Problems of Philosophy”.

Besant, Annie

An Irish woman by birth, she became a staunch supporter of India’s freedom movement. She founded the Theosophical Society of India. She is associated with the Home Rule League. She is the first woman President of the Indian National Congress.

Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh is known as Shabid-e- Azam. His name is synonymous with patriotism and revolution. He along with two other revolutionaries Sukh Dev and Raj Guru was hanged on March 23, 1931 for participation in the Lahore Conspiracy.

Bhaskara

Bhaskara was the astronomer of the 7th Century and was a contemporary of Brahmagupta, another famous astronomer. India’s second satellite for earth observation, Bhaskara is associated with his name.

Bhaskaracharya

Bhaskaracharya is a great Indian Mathematician and astronomer of the 12th century AD. His famous Sidhanta Shironmani consists of two mathematical and two astronomical volumes. His name is associated with India’s second satellite.

Bhave, Acharya Vinoba

The Sarvodaya and Bhoodan Movements leader. He was awarded Bharat Ratna for 1983.

Bill Gates

World’s richest private individual for the sixth consecutive year with a $90b, fortune. President and CEO of Microsoft Corp., He revolutionised the computer industry. Philanthropist who has made record donations.

Bipin Chandra Pal

He is called “Bengal Danton”. He started the Journals “New India”, “Swarajya”, “Indian Student” and assistant editor of Bengal Public Opinion and Tribune.

Birla, G.D

The doyen of Indian Industry died on July 11, 1983 at the age of 86.

Buddha

Gautam Buddha was a Kshatriya prince and was the son of Shudhodana. He was born in 623 B.C. at Lumbini a few miles from Kapilavastu on the Nepal Border. At the age of 28 he left his home and retired to the forests. This event is known as the Great Renunciation. He sat down in meditation under a pipal tree near Gaya. He gave his first Sermon in the Deer Park at Sarnath, near Banaras. This event is known as Dharma Chakra Pravartan. He founded a powerful Sangha or order of Bhikshus. His chief teachings were four Noble truths. The Eightfold Path of Middle Path, Karma, Ahimsa, Good Morals, No caste system and silence about God. Buddha died at Dushinaar (U.P.) He was indeed the “Light of Asia”.

Chaitanya

Chaitanya was born in Nadia (Bengal). His original name was Bishaber. He was an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna and preached the doctrine of love and devotion to Krishna. He sang songs in praise of God and held Kirtana. He laid the foundation of Vaishnavism in Bengal.

Chanakya or Kautilya

Chanakya was Chandragupta’s minister and wrote a book “Arthashastra” in Sanskrit which tells us about the reign of Chandragupta Maurya. Chanakya was also known as Vishnu Gupta. Kautilya has fully discussed the duties and responsibilities of an ideal King. He says: “Whatever pleases himself, he (king) shall not consider as good but whatever pleases his subjects he shall consider as good”. Arthashastra is regarded to be the greatest treatise in politics. Some writers compare Arthashastra with Machiavelli’s Prince, because Kautilya like Machiavelli tried to separate ethics from politics. He is also called “Aristotle of the East”.

Chandragupta-I

Chandragupta-I was the founder of the Gupta Dynasty. The Gupta era is called the Golden age of Hinduism. Chandragupta assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja.

Chandragupta Maurya

He was the founder of the Maurya dynasty. He was the first historical emperor of India. Magasthenes, the Greek ambassador sent by Seleucus, visited the court of Chandragupta and wrote a very interesting book “Indica” giving a most valuable account of the reign of Chandragupta.

Chandragupta Vikramaditya

Chandragupta Vikramaditya was the son of Samudragupta was as brave and powerful as his father. In some of his coins he was shown a live lion which shows that he possessed great physical strength. Vikramaditya means “Sun of Valour”. His court was adorned by `nine gems’. Kalidas, the Shakespeare of India flourished during his reign. The famous iron pillar standing near Qutab Minar was erected in his reign as a kind of victory Pillar. His reign was the Golden age of art and literature. Fahien was the first Chinese Pilgrim to visit India during his reign.

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