Jawaharlal Nehru, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Jehangir and Joan of Arc

Doorsteptutor material for IAS is prepared by world's top subject experts: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 109K)

Jawaharlal Nehru

The great Indian leader and maker of modern India. He was the first Prime Minister of free India from 1947 and remained in the office till his death. He pronounced the doctrine of Pancha sheel which advocated peaceful co-existence, non-alignment and non-interference in international relations. The Discovery of India, Autobiography and Glimpses of World History are some among his famous literary works.

Jayaprakash Narayan

The Sarvodaya leader was instrumental in the formation of Janata Party which defeated the Congress Party in 1977 general elections to Lok Sabha. Popularly known as Loknayak, he was conferred the Rashtra Bhushan Award in April 1977.

Jean Jacques Rousseau

A great political philosopher and thinker of France, who became famous for his social contract theory. His teachings and writings led to the French Revolution and the establishment of republics in different parts of the world. He uttered “Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains”.

Jehangir (Salim)

He came into power after the death of Akbar. He took keen interest in art and painting and laying out gardens and was a lover of nature. The great painter Goverdhana was in his court. He laid out the Shalimar and Nishat gardens near Srinagar. Akbar’s Tomb at Sikandar was built by him. He was an accomplished scholar too and wrote his autobiography called Tuzh- i-Jehagiri. But he was addicted to drink and opium. He is therefore called a “talented drunkard”. During his reign Captain William Hawkins was sent to India to obtain some trade concession for the English East India Company. Sir Thomas Roe came to the court of Jehangir and obtained permission to construct a factory at Surat.

Joan of Arc

The girl whose heroism inspired the French to drive the English out of Orleans. She was burnt as a heretic at Rouen. She is called “Maid of Orleans”.

John Milton

A well-known epic poet of English. His poetical works are Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained.

Joseph Stalin

He was a leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution. He became head of the government in 1924 after the death of Lenin. He helped to make Russia a great power.

Jyoti Basu

The 87-year-old longest serving Chief Minister of a state (24 years) since the first Left Front Government swept to power in 1977 in West Bengal announced his retirement from active politics and resigned as Chief Minister on October 27, 2000 on health grounds. He has been in the Communist party since 1940.


Indian saint and poet of Nirguna Bhakti Movement. He believed in the unity of God and equality of all religions.

Kalpana Chawla

Dr. Kalpana Chawla was the first (Indo-American) woman to go into space. Her first mission was on 19.11.97. Her second mission 0n 16.1.03 ended with a tragic explosion minutes before landing on 1.2.03. In a way to honour her, India’s first meteorological research satellite has been named as Kalpana-I.

Kamaraj Nadar, K

One of the leading freedom fighters and Congress Party leaders. He was Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and introduced several measures for the welfare of downtrodden in Tamil Nadu. He was awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1976.


A great Tamil poet and author of great Kambaramayanam lived in the 9th Century A.D. He was a native of Tiruvalandur in Tamil Nadu. He was hailed as “Kavi Chakravarthi”. Kamban has given full- fledged artistic expression to the grandeur and vigour of this cultural upsurge in the greatest literary epic of India.


He was the third and greatest King of the Kushan dynasty. He was a great conqueror. He was a Buddhist, and his reign witnessed the division of Buddhism into two sects namely Hinayana and Mahayana. Kanishka was a follower of the Mahayana sect. Kanishka was a great patron of art and literature. The well-known Ayurvedic physician Charaka was his court physician. He was the author of Charaka Shastra, Nagarjuna, Ashvagosha, and Vasumitra. Buddhist scholar flourished in his reign. Ashvagosha wrote “Buddha Charita”. The Gandhara School of architecture flourished during his reign. He founded a town Kanishkapura.

Karnam Malleswari

Indian weightlifter from Andhra Pradesh became First Indian woman ever to win an Olympic medal.

Kennedy, John

He was the youngest and the first Catholic President of United States. He was assassinated in Dallas on 22.11.1963. Khan

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

A stalwart of India’s freedom struggle who personified Gandhiji’s ideals and ideas, died in Peshawar on January 20, 1988 at the age of 98 after battling for life for more than 6 months. He was buried as per his will in Jalalabad in Afghanistan, 86 k.m. from the Pakistan border on January 22, 1988. A recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1967, he was honoured with India’s highest civilian award, Bharat Ratna in the year 1987. He was also associated with Red Shirt Movement. He is also called “Frontier Gandhi”.

Developed by: