Legal Terms: Official Receiver, Ordinance, Parole and Perjury, Constitutional Terms

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  • Official Receiver: a person properly authorised to carry out duties in connection with the winding up of an insolvent’s estate.

  • Ordinance: is an act promulgated by the Head of a State in case of emergency without undergoing the formalities of the regular procedure of the legislature of the country. It cannot remain in force beyond a specified period.

  • Parole: the release of a prisoner before the sentence has expired, on condition of future good behaviour.

  • Perjury: making false statement on oath.

  • Plaintiff: one who brings a suit in a court of law.

  • Penology: is that branch of riminology which deals with the study of punishments for crimes and reform or reclamation of criminals.

  • Polygamy: practice or condition of being married to more than one husband at the same time.

  • Post-mortem examination: refers to medical examination of a corpse (dead body) in order to discover the cause of death.

  • Power of Attorney: a document under seal authorising the person to whom it is given to act in all respects as the agent of the granter of the power in relation to matters specified in the documents.

  • Preventive Detention: imprisonment without trial before the actual commission of a specified crime.

  • Promissory Note: an undertaking in writing to repay the sum on demand.

  • Prohibition: is a measure banning the sale or consumption of alcoholic drinks and narcotics.

  • Prohibitory Order: It is an order issued by a competent authority prohibiting meetings, processions, demonstrations etc., without prior permission.

  • Proxy: One who acts for another or the written authorisation for such action.

  • Prima facie: at the first sight.

  • Probono Publico: for the public good.

  • Quo Warranto: is the writ issued to person holding an important office of the State to establish his claim to hold that post.

  • Quorum: the minimum number to form meeting at which any official business can be transacted.

  • Rule of Law: means that all persons are equal in the eye of law without any distinction of status, colour, caste and sex, and that the government cannot exercise any arbitrary powers.

  • Sedition: conduct or speech tending to rebellion or breach of public order.

  • Sine die: without date, indefinitely.

  • Status quo ante: the previous position.

  • Summons: a writ of a court commanding the attendance of a witness at a specified time and place.

  • Sub judice: under judicial consideration.

  • Ultravires: beyond one’s power etc.,

  • Unicameral: having only one house in a law-making body.

  • Vakalat: a written authority by a litigant to his lawyer.

  • Vox populi: the voice of the people.

  • Warrant: a legal document, issued by a competent authority given power of arrest and detention before trial, seizure of property or search of houses and buildings.

  • Writ: a written command by the High Court or the Supreme Court directing the State or the court to act or abstain from acting in some way.

Constitutional Terms

  • Appellate Jurisdiction: The authority to hear the appeal against the law courts.

  • Bill (Law): Bill means proposed law introduced in the legislature for discussion. When passed, it becomes a law. A Bill may be introduced in either house of legislature by a minister. It is then called an ‘Official Bill’. A Bill may be introduced by a member in either house of legislature after giving due notice. Such a bill is called a ‘Non-Official Bill’.

  • Budget: A Statement of annual income and expenditure is submitted to the legislature for its approval.

  • Cabinet: First rank members of the Council of Ministers appointed by the President on the recommendations of the Prime Minister.

  • Collective Responsibility: It means that the Council of Ministers take decisions collectively and all ministers actively support that decision. The whole Council of Ministers resigns if a vote of no-confidence is passed against a minister.

  • Constitution: A body of Fundamental laws and principles according to which a country is governed. It is a frame wok within which a government works.

  • Constituency: A body of voters that elect its representative to a legislative body like the Lok Sabha, or the Vidhan Sabha.

  • Civil Cases: Cases concerning property, contracts and damage to goods in transit, etc.

  • Criminal cases: Cases dealing with left, robbery, physical injury or murder.

  • Citizen: A citizen is one who lives in a country and participates in the working of the government. An individual cannot be a citizen of more than one country.

  • Constitutional Remedy: Our Constitution provides that in case an individual feel that he has been denied his fundamental rights, he can demand justice from the Court according to a procedure set by law.

  • Democratic Republic: A government through elected representatives where the Head of the government is elected for a fixed term.

  • Directive Principles: These principles are constitutional guidelines and directives to the government for the achievement of national goals.

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