Legal Terms: Ultimatum, Untouchability and Universal Adult Franchise, Chronological Events: BC

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  • Ultimatum: Final terms before a certain course of action vis-a- vis another party is adopted.

  • Untouchability: Due to caste distinctions prevailing in Indian society, certain castes were considered low and suffered from many social and economic injustices.

  • Universal Adult Franchise: It means that every adult citizen enjoys the right to vote. In India, a citizen who is not less than 18 years of age enjoys this right.

  • Ultravires: An invalid act done in excess of the authority conferred by law, acts beyond the scope of the powers of a corporation as defined by its memorandum and articles of association. In fact, it is an act done beyond powers or lack of power.

  • Veto: Right of executive head to refuse to approve any legislation.

  • Vote: Right of executive head to refuse to approve any legislation.

  • Vote on account: Usually, Vote on account is taken for a sum equivalent to one-sixth of the expenditure for the entire year in respect of demands for grants. As a convention, it is passed by the Lok Sabha without any discussion.

  • Vote of Credit: During a national emergency, the house might grant a lump sum through a vote of credit. Likewise, exceptional grants are given for special purposes.

  • Vote of no-Confidence: It implies that the legislature feels that the Council of Ministers is not working properly and deserves to be removed from office. It has lost the confidence of the legislature. If such a proposal is passed, the Council of Ministers resigns.

  • Waiver: The act of abandoning or refraining from asserting a legal right is called waiver. It is a defence against subsequent enforcement.

  • Weaker Sections: Classes of people who are socially and economically backward.

  • Weightage: Allowing a community (or group) more representation that it can claim on the basis of its population.

  • Whip: An important party official, entrusted with the responsibility of organising disciplined voting according to the party directions and ensuring attendance of the party members on a specific occasion.

  • White Paper: A detailed policy statement issued by a government with regard to a matter of considerable public importance.

  • Zero-based Budgeting: It is an improvement over the traditional budgeting and not a substitute of it. It examines critically regularly and systematically the assumptions of the traditional budget. The budgeted item is treated at each year at the Zero- base level as if it was non-existent in the past.

  • Zero Hour: The period following the question hour. If generally begins at 12.00 noon and lasts till 1.00 p.m. officially, it is used to raise various issues of public importance without priorly notifying the minister.

Chronological Events


Chronological Events
Chronological Events


Indus Valley Civilization, Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa


Birth of Buddha, founder of Buddhism


327 AD Alexander’s invasions of India


First Battle of Tarain (Thaneshwar)


Second Battle of Tarain (Thaneshwar)


Discovery of sea-route to India by Vasco-da- Gama


First Battle of Panipat


Second Battle of Panipat


Battle of Talikota between Delhi Sultanate and Vijayanagar ruler Ramaraja. Ramaraja was killed.


East India Company established


Battle of Plessey


Battle of Wandiwash. French power ended.


Third Battle of Panipat.


Battle of Buxar.


First Railway line opened in India between Thana and Bombay


First War of Independence (Sepoy Mutiny)


2.10.1869, Birth of Mahatma Gandhi at Porbunder


First Census taken


Indian National Congress was founded by A.O. Hume.


Australian Commonwealth proclaimed.


Russian and Britain, agrees of the partition of China.


First partition of Bengal under Lord Curzon.


Foundation of Muslim League.


Minto-Morley Reforms.


Mother Teresa born in Albania.


Delhi becomes the capital - Partition of Bengal revoked - King George V crowned King of the United Kingdom and Emperor or India - First British King and Queen land in Bombay.


Titanic, World’s biggest ship, sinks in North Atlantic, Killing 1513 people - The 5th Olympic Games held in Stockholm.


The first Asian, Rabindranath Tagore is awarded the Nobel Prize

for Literature.


World War I declared.


World War I end.

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