Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Maritime and Labour Organisation

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • It was adopted by the U.N. Assembly on December 10, 1948. It is a statement of normal standards to be followed by all nations.

  • It guarantees international peace and prosperity. It stresses the fact that everyone has the rights to life, liberty and security, equality before law, freedom of movement etc. Irrespective of race, religion, sex or language.

International Maritime Organisation (IMO)

Headquarters

London

It was established as a specialised agency of the UN by the UN Maritime Conference at Geneva in 1948.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Headquarters

Geneva

It was established in 1919 as an autonomous part of the League of Nations. It is an intergovernmental agency with a tripartite structure, in which representatives of governments, employers and workers participate. In 1969 it won the Nobel Peace Prize.

Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)

Headquarters

Rome

The UN Conference on Food and Agriculture held in May 1943, at Hot springs, Virginia, set up an Interim Commission in Washington in July 1943 to plan the Food and Agricultural Organisation, which came into being on 16th October 1945. FAO sponsors the World Food Programme.

United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

Headquarters

Paris

  • A Conference for the establishment of an Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the United Nations was convened by the Government of France, and met in London, 1 to 16 Nov. 1945. UNESCO came into being on 4th November 1946.

  • The main purpose of UNESCO is to promote peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order that people may have respect for justice, for the rule of law, for human rights and fundamental freedoms irrespective of race, sex, language and religion.

United Nations International Children’S Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

Headquarters

USA

It was founded in 1946 by the General Assembly. It was established to deliver post-war relief to children, and it aims at improving the quality of life for children and mother in developing countries. UNICEF is not financed by the U.N. budget but by voluntary contributions from governments and individuals.

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)

It was formed in the International Civil Aviation Conference held in Chicago from 1 Nov. to 7 Dec. 1994. Its aims and objectives are to develop international air navigation and foster the planning and development of international transport. Headquarters: Lebanon.

International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

Headquarters

Washington

It was established at Breton Woods Conference in July 1994. Its object is to assist the member nations in the economic reconstruction and development of the territories. The bank advances loans to the member nations for development purposes and encourages private foreign investment and also arranges loans to its own security. It guarantees loans by Private Investors.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

It was established on 27th December 1945 and it operates from 1st March 1947. It works for the promotion of International Trade. It helps those countries with foreign exchange whose balance of trade is in unfavourable position. Headquarters: Washington.

World Health Organisation (WHO)

Headquarters

Geneva

WHO came into existence on April 7, 1948. It aims to assist the Governments to raise the standard of public health and impart information of health research. It also promotes in improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation and recreation.

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

Headquarters

Switzerland

It was formally established on 1st July 1875. It has been established to alleviate uncertainty. Confusion and excessive cost of international postal communications by writing its member countries in a single postal territory for the reciprocal exchange of mail. The postal convention has been extended and improved by the various Postal Congress.

International Telecommunications Union (I.T.U.)

Headquarters

Geneva, Switzerland

The International Telegraph Union founded in Paris in 1865 and the International Radio Telegraph Union, founded in Berlin in 1906 by the Madrid Convention of 1932 to form the ITU. Its main purpose is to bring the improvement and rational use of telecommunications and increase the efficiency of the telecommunication services by maintaining and extending international co-operation.

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