Human Genome Project, Genome and International HapMap Project

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1000 Genomes Project

launched in January 2008, is an international research effort to establish by far the most detailed catalogue of

Human Genome Project

HGP was an international scientific research project with a goal to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA and to identify and map the genes of the human genome. Began in 1990 and ended in 2003.


The genome is the entirety of an organism’s hereditary information. It is coded either in DNA or RNA (for many viruses).

International HapMap Project

The International HapMap Project is an organization whose goal is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. It is a collaboration among researchers at academic centres, non-profit biomedical research groups and private companies in Canada, China, Japan, Nigeria, UK and the US.

1000 Plant Genomes Project

Started in 2008, the aim of the project is to obtain the transcriptome (expressed genes) of 1000 different plant species. Headed by Dr. Wong and Dr. Deyholos of the University of Alberta.

Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

SDO is a NASA mission launched on February 11, 2010 which will observe the sun for over five years. The observatory is a part of the living with a star program. SDO’s goal is to understand the sun’s influence on earth and near-earth space by studying the solar atmosphere on small scales of space and time and in many wavelengths simultaneously. It will find out how the sun’s magnetic field is generated, structured and converted into violent solar events such as turbulent solar wind, solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

Living with a Star (LWS)

LWS is a NASA program to study those aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. Currently, it has two projects: Solar Dynamics Laboratory (SDO) and Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP).


This is the gene that is essential for correctly regenerating body parts among creatures. This research could prove vital in artificial regeneration of human organs.


They are organisms found in the Mediterranean sea which live anaerobically. They are the first multi-cellular anaerobic organisms to be discovered.


Launch: October 22, 2008 Site: Satish Dhavan Space Centre, Sriharikota

The objectives of the programme were:

  • To develop and orbit a spacecraft around moon using an Indian-made launch vehicle.

  • To prepare a three-dimensional atlas of both the near and the far side of the moon.

  • Chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface.

  • To study the impact of Moon Impact Probe on the surface of the moon as a fore-runner to future soft-landing missions.

  • NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) had on Chandrayaan-1 had detected water on the surface of moon. The mission was expected to last two years. However, the communication with the satellite was lost on 29 August 2009 and the mission was declared over. It lasted for 312 days and achieved 95 percent of its objectives.

  • Chandrayaan-1 was selected by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) as one of the recipients of its annual AIAA SPACE 2009 awards for contributions to space science and technology.

Internationalized Domain Name (IDN)

IDN is an internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian or Hindi.

European Space Agency (ESA)

  • Est. 1975

  • Intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space.

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