Features of Dravida School & Four Styles of Dravidian Architecture for PAR

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Features of Dravida School

Image of Features of Dravida School

Image of Features of Dravida School

Image of Features of Dravida School

  • Single vimaan on main shrine

  • Shikhara octagonal shape on vimaan

  • Pillared wall

  • Presence of tank

  • Huge gopuram gateway

  • Sculptures of dwarpal instead of ganga/mithuna of nagara school

  • Dravidian architecture developed dynastically

  • Dravidian style was initiated by pallavas and flourished by cholas

  • Ex. gangeykondacholapuram bu Rajendra 1

  • Brihadeswara temple at tanjore,tamilnadu

Four Styles of Dravidian Architecture

1. Pallava School of Art

Image of Pallava School of Art

Image of Pallava School of Art

Image of Pallava School of Art

  • Around 600 A.D.

  • Dravidian temple architecture started by pallavas

  • Developed in 4 phases

  • Mahendra varman-600-625 A.D.

  • Just the Rock cut Caves

  • The word mandap was used instead of temple

  • No real temple structure

  • Ex-adivaraha cave,Durga cave-mahishsurmardini,panchpandava cave

  • Narsimhan varman

  • Decoration in rock cut caves.

  • Mandapas now became rathas

  • 6 rathas in one cave

  • Largest ratha-dharmraja,smallest ratha-draupadi

  • Dharmaraja ratha was the precursor of the Dravidian style

Image of Narasimha varman temple dravidian style

Image of Narasimha Varman Temple Dravidian Style

Image of Narasimha varman temple dravidian style

  • Rajsimhan varman

  • Real structural temples

  • Open air carving in relief on a rock surface

  • Sculpture different from gupta sculpture

  • More oval face, higher cheek bones, great slenderness and freer movements of the forms.

  • Exellency in animal representation

  • Later, structural temples made of masonry and stone.

  • Ex-kailashnath temple at Kancheepuram 3 parts sanctum with pyramedial tower,mandapa and rectangular courtyard-for subsidiary shrines

  • shore temple,mahabalipuram

Image of shore temple, Mahabalipuram

Image of Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram

Image of shore temple, Mahabalipuram

  • Nandivarman

  • Started the concept of small temples

  • Confined all the features of Dravidian style

2. Chola School of Architecture

Image of Brihedshawara temple

Image of Brihedshawara Temple

Image of Brihedshawara temple

  • 10-11th centuries

  • Revived the pallava heritage with fresh approach

  • The vimaana dominates the whole structure.

  • 2 beautiful creations Brihadeswara temple at thanjaur,tamilnadu

  • Gangeykonda cholapuram

  • Brihadeswara temple dedicated to shiva

  • Huge lingam

  • A massive monolithic bull(2nd biggest,1st at lepakshi)

  • On the square forming the topmost tier is poised a huge rounded cupola of a single stone,the shadow of which never falls on the ground.-unique achievement

  • Immense gopuram

3. Vijaynagar School of Architecture

Image of Hampi temple

Image of Hampi Temple

Image of Hampi temple

  • Around 16th century

  • Hampi was the capital.

  • Important ruler krishnadevraya built temples, pillared mandapas, Gopuram called as rayagopurams.

  • Larger gopuram and High enclose walls.

  • More decoration perticular design supernatural horse

  • Secular buildings were built.

  • for ex. lotus mahal

  • Vitthalswamy temple

  • Amman shrine and kalyana gopuram

  • Centraal raised platform surrounded by rows of carved pillars-open pavallion

  • Ex. hall of dance at lepakshi

  • Festival hall at Vellore

  • Virabhadra temple, Lepakshi three figures share four legs.

  • Nandi near lepakshi

  • Seated ‘Ugra narsimha’

4. Nayaka School of Architecture

Image of meenakshi temple at Madurai

Image of Meenakshi Temple at Madurai

Image of meenakshi temple at Madurai

  • Around 17th century

  • Dominant in Madurai region

  • The nayakas rose on the fall of the vijayanagara empire

  • Continued the artistic traditions of vijayanagara empire

  • Most famous-meenakshi-sundareswara temple at Madurai

  • By thirumalai nayak

  • Temple complex has 2 shrines

    • 1st shiva as sundareswara

    • 2nd his wife in the form of goddess meenakshi

  • Every space is filled with surface carvings.

  • Large tank surrounded by steps and a pillared portico.

  • Prominent feature development of prakaram roofed embulatory passageways to connect various parts of the temples.

  • Most famous prakaram of this period at rameswaram.