Architecture, Mughal Art and Architecture, Sufi and Bhakti Movement

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Architecture

Qutab Minar

  • Built by Iltutmish (started by Aibak)

  • Dedicated to the Sufi saint Qutub-ud-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki

Alauddin

  • added an arch – Alai Darwaza – to Qutub Minar

  • City: Siri

  • Haus Khas

Tughlaqs

  • Built Tughlaqabad

  • Feature: Sloping walls

  • Firuz Shah Kotla

Lodis

  • Built on platforms

  • Lodi Garden

Mughal Art and Architecture

Pietra dura: decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones

Akbar

  • Agra Fort

  • Fatehpur Sikri; Buland Darwaza was built to commemorate Akbar’s victory in Gujarat

  • Gujrat style of architecture was used

  • Painters: Daswant and Basawan

  • European painting was introduced

  • Litterateurs: Abul Fazl and Faizi; Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanah; Tulsidas

  • Marathi: Eknath and Tukaram

Shah Jahan

  • Red Fort, Delhi

  • Moti Masjid at Agra Fort

  • Jama Masjid, Delhi

Jahangir

  • Great patron of painting

  • Portrait painting and painting of animals

  • Painter: Mansur

Major Schools of Paintings During Mughal Time

  • Rajasthan style

  • Pahari school

  • Largest number of books on classical Indian music in Persian were written during Aurangzeb’s reign

Sufi Movement

  • Organised into 12 orders or silsilahs

  • Orders broadly divided into two

    • Ba-shara

    • Be-shara

  • Early sufis: Rabia, Mansur bin Hallaj, Al Ghazzali

  • Yogic book, Amrit Kund, was translated into Persian from Sanskrit

Ba-Shara

Chisti and Suharwardi silsilah

Chisti Order

  • Established by Moinuddin Chishti

  • Bakhtiyar Kaki, Farid ud din Ganj-i-Shakau, Nizamuddin Aulia, Nasirudding Chiragh-i-Delhi

  • Believed in fakiri (poverty).

Suharwardi

  • Largely confined to Punjab and Multan

  • Shaikh Shihabuddin Suharwardi and Hamid-ud-Din Nagori

  • Did not believe in fakiri. Accepted the service of the state.

Other Important Sufi

Gesu Daraz

Bhakti Movement

Nath Panti movement challenged the caste system

Literature and Art

  • Khusrau created a new style of Persian which came to be called shabaq-i-hindi.

  • Historians: Barani, Afif and Islami

  • Zia Nakhshabi translated Sanskrit stories into Persian

    • Tuti-Nama (Book of the Parrot)

  • Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir had Rajtarangini and Mahabharata translated into Persian

  • Raja Man Singh of Gwalior was a lover of music

    • Man, Kautahal was compiled which contained all new musical nodes introduced by Muslims.

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